# Theoretical phonetics. Study guide for second year students. Борискина О.О - 44 стр.

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44
The structure of an intonation unit: the head is all that part of a unit that
extends from the first stressed syllable up to the tonic syllable. The pre-head
is
composed of all the unstressed syllables in a unit preceding the first stressed
syllable. The tail
comprises all the syllables coming after the head.
Task17. Follow a step-by-step procedure developed by Herzen University
phoneticians (Merkulova, 2002, pp. 76-77) to perform a phonetic analysis of a
sentence:
1. Define the communicative type of the sentence and thus its typical intonation
pattern.
2. Split the sentence into sense-groups. Mark pauses between sense-groups with
one vertical line and put two vertical lines to mark the end of the sentence.
3. Define the prominent elements of each sense-group and put a tone mark
before the stressed syllable of the prominent word.
4. See if there is an emphasized word in the sentence and mark it with a special
rise.
5. Put down stress marks before all stressed syllables.
6. Transcribe the sentence.
7. Mark different phonetic phenomena using the following symbols:
a) ں — to show the linking of two vowels or a consonant and a vowel;
b) tr — to show all kinds of assimilation (lateral plosion, nasal plosion, etc.).
8. Read the sentence, beating rhythm. To avoid mistakes, one may start reading
from the end of the sentence, and add the preceding words or sense-groups one
by one.
For example, let us analyse the sentence "This is a nice house which seems
unexpectedly little" and perform its step-by-step analysis.
a. The sentence is a statement. Its typical intonation pattern is a gradually
descending scale.
b. This is a nice house | which seems unexpectedly little ||
c. This is a nice \house | which seems unexpectedly \little||
d. This is a nice \house | which seems unexpectedly \little||
e. 'This is a 'nice \house | which 'seems 'unexpectedly \little||
f. 'ðis iz ə 'nais \haus | wiʧ si:mz 'Λnikspektdli \litl ||
g. 'ðisںisںə 'nais \aus | wiʧ si:mzں'Λnikspektdli \litl ||
The sentences below are to be transcribed in phonetic symbols, marked for
rhythm and intonation, and then read.
1. We have time enough to finish.
2. We have fifteen minutes.
3. Will you have an appetizer?
4. I'll take the regular dinner.
5. Will you bring us our coffee later?
6. You know it as well as I do.
7. Shall we wait here or outside?
                                            44
The structure of an intonation unit: the head is all that part of a unit that
extends from the first stressed syllable up to the tonic syllable. The pre-head is
composed of all the unstressed syllables in a unit preceding the first stressed
syllable. The tail comprises all the syllables coming after the head.

Task17. Follow a step-by-step procedure developed by Herzen University
phoneticians (Merkulova, 2002, pp. 76-77) to perform a phonetic analysis of a
sentence:
1. Define the communicative type of the sentence and thus its typical intonation
pattern.
2. Split the sentence into sense-groups. Mark pauses between sense-groups with
one vertical line and put two vertical lines to mark the end of the sentence.
3. Define the prominent elements of each sense-group and put a tone mark
before the stressed syllable of the prominent word.
4. See if there is an emphasized word in the sentence and mark it with a special
rise.
5. Put down stress marks before all stressed syllables.
6. Transcribe the sentence.
7. Mark different phonetic phenomena using the following symbols:
a) ‫  ں‬to show the linking of two vowels or a consonant and a vowel;
b) tr  to show all kinds of assimilation (lateral plosion, nasal plosion, etc.).
8. Read the sentence, beating rhythm. To avoid mistakes, one may start reading
from the end of the sentence, and add the preceding words or sense-groups one
by one.
For example, let us analyse the sentence "This is a nice house which seems
unexpectedly little" and perform its step-by-step analysis.

a. The sentence is a statement. Its typical intonation pattern is a gradually
descending scale.
b. This is a nice house | which seems unexpectedly little ||
c. This is a nice \house | which seems unexpectedly \little||
d. This is a nice \house | which seems unex↑pectedly \little||
e. 'This is a 'nice \house | which 'seems 'unex↑pectedly \little||
f. 'ðis iz ə 'nais \haus | wiʧ si:mz 'Λniks↑pektdli \litl ||
g. 'ðis‫ں‬is‫ں‬ə 'nais \aus | wiʧ si:mz‫'ں‬Λniks↑pektdli \litl ||
• The sentences below are to be transcribed in phonetic symbols, marked for
rhythm and intonation, and then read.
1. We have time enough to finish.
2. We have fifteen minutes.
3. Will you have an appetizer?
4. I'll take the regular dinner.
5. Will you bring us our coffee later?
6. You know it as well as I do.
7. Shall we wait here or outside?