# Theoretical phonetics. Study guide for second year students. Борискина О.О - 7 стр.

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7
Task 4. What are the main principles of classifying consonants? Are there any
differences when considering the problem among Russian, British and American
linguists? Make a list of the marked points of differences and fix the results in a
table. Ref.
[Соколова, 2004, pp.60-65; Соколова, 2003, pp.24-31].
What is a sonorant? There has traditionally been a lot of debate about
this class of consonants or vowels? Why do some of the British and American
phoneticians refer some of the sonorants to the class of semivowels? Does the
term liquids, used by American phoneticians, appeal to you? Why?
Comment on the parameters below, illustrating them with examples.
Sonorants vary:
in the manner of articulation;
in the place of articulation;
in the position of the soft palate;
in the direction of the air stream.
What nasal consonant is most likely to pose a challenge to Russian
learners of English? Why?
Do you know how English stops are correctly pronounced in English? Right!
They are often unreleased in final position. Read the words and phrases below
following the example.
Example: mop/bob (lips remain closed); peck/peg (back of the tongue remains
on velum).
pick/pig hot/cod
back/bag tot/tod
cap/cab shop/rob
Wow! The buttons look like they’re going to pop
!
Yeah, it’s just not going to fit
.
I’m going to take it back
.
In fact, there are other problematic consonant sounds. To eliminate possible
mistakes, study the recommendations given in the textbooks Ref.
[Соколова,2003, pp.32-66.; Merkulova,2002, pp.46-47].
Further practice: Ref. [Hancock, 2004, pp.14-18, 32-42; Trim, 2002,
pp. 12-45].
What is a vowel? Examine its characteristics and define how vowel
sounds differ from their consonant counterparts. Many linguists claim that the
description of vowels is much more elusive than that of consonants. Why?
Study the information about basic principles of classifying vowels
and answer the following questions:
1. What is the most common vowel sound in English?
                                        7
Task 4. What are the main principles of classifying consonants? Are there any
differences when considering the problem among Russian, British and American
linguists? Make a list of the marked points of differences and fix the results in a
table. Ref. [Соколова, 2004, pp.60-65; Соколова, 2003, pp.24-31].

Task 5. What is a sonorant? There has traditionally been a lot of debate about
this class of consonants or vowels? Why do some of the British and American
phoneticians refer some of the sonorants to the class of semivowels? Does the
term liquids, used by American phoneticians, appeal to you? Why?

Task 6. Comment on the parameters below, illustrating them with examples.
Sonorants vary:
• in the manner of articulation;
• in the place of articulation;
• in the position of the soft palate;
• in the direction of the air stream.

Task 7. What nasal consonant is most likely to pose a challenge to Russian
learners of English? Why?
Do you know how English stops are correctly pronounced in English? Right!
They are often unreleased in final position. Read the words and phrases below
following the example.
Example: mop/bob (lips remain closed); peck/peg (back of the tongue remains
on velum).
pick/pig                     hot/cod
back/bag                      tot/tod
cap/cab                      shop/rob
Wow! The buttons look like theyre going to pop!
Yeah, its just not going to fit.
Im going to take it back.
In fact, there are other problematic consonant sounds. To eliminate possible
mistakes, study the recommendations given in the textbooks Ref.
[Соколова,2003, pp.32-66.; Merkulova,2002, pp.46-47].

Task 8. Further practice: Ref. [Hancock, 2004, pp.14-18, 32-42; Trim, 2002,
pp. 12-45].

Task 9. What is a vowel? Examine its characteristics and define how vowel
sounds differ from their consonant counterparts. Many linguists claim that the
description of vowels is much more elusive than that of consonants. Why?

Task 10. Study the information about basic principles of classifying vowels
and answer the following questions:
1. What is the most common vowel sound in English?