Speaking legal English. Борисова Л.А. - 28 стр.

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1. In what connection are the names of John Kennedy and Robert
Kennedy mentioned?
2. What problem did the USA face in the third quarter of the XX
century?
3. How might an increase in violence be explained?
4. What is one of the ways of solving the problem?
5. What do police statistics mean?
6. Why don’t we have a true picture of crime rate?
7. How many people become victims?
8. What is a theoretical value of a survey of victims?
9. What is a practical value of a survey of victims?
10. How do young people feel about the situation?
Exercise 14. Retell the text you have just listened to using the following
plan.
 The problem of violence
 Reasons for the problem
 Police statistics
 Surveys of victims
Exercise 15. Read the text about defenses in Great Britain, translate the
words given in bold and answer the questions.
Defenses
If actus and mens have been proved, a defendant may still avoid guilt if
he can show he has a defense—a reason the court should excuse his act.
Different systems of law recognize different and usually limited sets of defenses.
For example, English law sometimes allow the defense of duress—being forced
to commit a crime because of threats that you or someone else will be harmed if
you don't. Duress may be used as a defense against the charge of murder as a
secondary party (helping the murderer), but is not available if the defendant is
charged as the principal murderer.
Another defense is that of insanity. In most countries a person cannot be
found guilty of a crime if in a doctor's opinion he cannot have been responsible
for his actions because of mental illness. But this defense requires careful proof.
If it is proven the defendant will not be sent to a prison, but instead to a mental
hospital.
It might be argued that a person is not responsible for his actions if he is
intoxicated—drunk or under the influence of drugs. In fact, an intoxicated
person may not even know what he is doing and thus lacks mens rea. However,
in Britain and many other countries, there is a general principle that people who
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        1. In what connection are the names of John Kennedy and Robert
Kennedy mentioned?
2. What problem did the USA face in the third quarter of the XX
century?
3. How might an increase in violence be explained?
4. What is one of the ways of solving the problem?
5. What do police statistics mean?
6. Why don’t we have a true picture of crime rate?
7. How many people become victims?
8. What is a theoretical value of a survey of victims?
9. What is a practical value of a survey of victims?
10. How do young people feel about the situation?

Exercise 14. Retell the text you have just listened to using the following
plan.
��   The problem of violence
��   Reasons for the problem
��   Police statistics
��   Surveys of victims

Exercise 15. Read the text about defenses in Great Britain, translate the
words given in bold and answer the questions.

Defenses
If actus and mens have been proved, a defendant may still avoid guilt if
he can show he has a defense—a reason the court should excuse his act.
Different systems of law recognize different and usually limited sets of defenses.
For example, English law sometimes allow the defense of duress—being forced
to commit a crime because of threats that you or someone else will be harmed if
you don't. Duress may be used as a defense against the charge of murder as a
secondary party (helping the murderer), but is not available if the defendant is
charged as the principal murderer.
Another defense is that of insanity. In most countries a person cannot be
found guilty of a crime if in a doctor's opinion he cannot have been responsible
for his actions because of mental illness. But this defense requires careful proof.
If it is proven the defendant will not be sent to a prison, but instead to a mental
hospital.
It might be argued that a person is not responsible for his actions if he is
intoxicated—drunk or under the influence of drugs. In fact, an intoxicated
person may not even know what he is doing and thus lacks mens rea. However,
in Britain and many other countries, there is a general principle that people who

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