# Welcome to the computer world. Practice materials for 1st year students. Еранина Т.И - 4 стр.

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UNIT I
The first steps in the computer technology
Development of electronics
Electronics is a field of engineering and applied physics deal-
ing with the design and application of electronic circuits. The operation
of circuits depends on the flow of electrons for generation,
transmission, reception and storage of information.
Today it is difficult to imagine our life without electronics. It
surrounds us everywhere. Electronic devices are widely used in
scientific research and industrial designing; they control the work of
plants and power stations, calculate the trajectories of space ships and
help the people discover new phenomena of nature. Automatization of
production processes and studies on living organisms became possible
due to electronics.
The invention of vacuum tubes at the beginning of the 20
th
century was the starting point of the rapid growth of modern
electronics. Vacuum tubes assisted in manipulation of signals. The
development of a large variety of tubes designed for specialized
technology before the World War II and in the creation of early
computers during and shortly after the war.
The transistor invented by American scientists W.Shockly,
J.Bardeen and W.Brattain in 1948 completely replaced the vacuum tube.
The transistor, a small piece of a semiconductor with three electrodes,
had great advantages over the best vacuum tubes. It provided the same
functions as the vacuum tube but at reduced weight, cost, power
consumption, and with high reliability. With the invention of the
transistor all essential circuit functions could be carried out inside solid
bodies. The aim of creating electronic circuits with entirely solid-state
components had finally been realized. Early transistors could respond
at a rate of a few million times a second. This was fast enough to serve
in radio circuits, but far below the speed needed for high-speed
computers or for microwave communication systems.
The progress in semiconductor technology led to the devel-
opment of the integrated circuit (IС), which was discovered due to the
efforts of John Kilby in 1958. There appeared a new field of science —
integrated electronics. The essence of it is batch processing. Instead of
making, testing and assembling descrete components on a chip one at a
time, large groupings of these components together with their
                                        -4-

UNIT I

The first steps in the computer technology

Development of electronics

Electronics is a field of engineering and applied physics deal-
ing with the design and application of electronic circuits. The operation
of circuits depends on the flow of electrons for generation,
transmission, reception and storage of information.
Today it is difficult to imagine our life without electronics. It
surrounds us everywhere. Electronic devices are widely used in
scientific research and industrial designing; they control the work of
plants and power stations, calculate the trajectories of space ships and
help the people discover new phenomena of nature. Automatization of
production processes and studies on living organisms became possible
due to electronics.
The invention of vacuum tubes at the beginning of the 20th
century was the starting point of the rapid growth of modern
electronics. Vacuum tubes assisted in manipulation of signals. The
development of a large variety of tubes designed for specialized
technology before the World War II and in the creation of early
computers during and shortly after the war.
The transistor invented by American scientists W.Shockly,
J.Bardeen and W.Brattain in 1948 completely replaced the vacuum tube.
The transistor, a small piece of a semiconductor with three electrodes,
had great advantages over the best vacuum tubes. It provided the same
functions as the vacuum tube but at reduced weight, cost, power
consumption, and with high reliability. With the invention of the
transistor all essential circuit functions could be carried out inside solid
bodies. The aim of creating electronic circuits with entirely solid-state
components had finally been realized. Early transistors could respond
at a rate of a few million times a second. This was fast enough to serve
in radio circuits, but far below the speed needed for high-speed
computers or for microwave communication systems.
The progress in semiconductor technology led to the devel-
opment of the integrated circuit (IС), which was discovered due to the
efforts of John Kilby in 1958. There appeared a new field of science 
integrated electronics. The essence of it is batch processing. Instead of
making, testing and assembling descrete components on a chip one at a
time, large groupings of these components together with their