Early Russian History. Key Issues. Гончарова Л.Ю. - 29 стр.



molest, v (= bother, annoy)
deaf-mute, adj (= dumb and deaf)
threadbare, adj (= shabby)
rivalry, n (= competition)
feud, n (e.g. family feud, personal feud,
blood feud)
roam, v (= wander)
torment, v (= torture, tantalize)
tormentor, n
pack, n (e.g. a pack of starved hunting
dogs, a wolf pack)
scoundrel, n (= rascal; e.g. a gang of
young scoundrels)
rape, n (v)
confession, n (e.g. to do a public
confession of smbs sins)
coronation, n
devote, v (adj)
devoted, adj (= faithful)
khanate, n (e.g. the Khanates of Kazan
and Astrakhan)
fever, n (e.g. high fever, yellow fever; to
come down with a fever)
to swear an oath of allegiance
treachery, n (= treason, betrayal)
to do smth in full view of smb
to rage at (against) smb
exile, n (v) (e.g. to send smb into exile; to
live in exile)
fit, n (e.g. a fit of temper, a fit of nerves,
hysterical fit, a fit of coughing, etc)
measures, etc)
retail trade
bureaucracy, n
apanage system
purge, n (v)
strangle, v
flog, v
staff, n (e.g. Ivan used to carry a metal-
pointed (iron-tipped) staff with him.)
sack, v (=plunder; e.g. to sack a city)
mutilate, v
impale, v (The king used to impale his
prisoners on sharp sticks and place them
in public view.)
massacre, n (v) (= kill, slaughter)
mercenary, n
plague, n
homage, n (e.g. to pay homage to smb)
banish, v
hereditary landowner
service tenure
adhere, v (adherent, n)
haughty, adj (e.g. haughty landlords)
defy, v (defiant, adj; defiance, n)
succumb, v (e.g. to succumb to a wound,
to a disease)
mercury, n
law code
treasury, n
proliferate, v
turmoil, n
desolation, n
Questions for discussion
Comment on the following:
1. At the beginning of the chapter Ivans reign is called great, whereas at the
end it is blamed for leaving the country in a state of extreme confusion and disorder.
Are these statements as contradictory as they seem at first sight? How can you
reconcile them? What generally makes a monarch great?
2. What factors built up Ivans personality? Was his behaviour and policy
anyhow similar to that of other European leaders of the time?
3. Can we justify the Oprichnina?
4. In your opinion, was Ivan more a monstrous madman or a skillful political
manipulator? Give specific reasons to support your answer.