# Computers today. Гурьянова В.И. - 15 стр.

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15
ally more like hardware than software. Flash memory blurs the distinction between
ROM and RAM by retaining data when turned off but being rewritable like RAM.
However, flash memory is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM
so its use is restricted to applications where high speeds are not required.
In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache
memories which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. Gener-
ally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed
data into the cache automatically, often without the need for any intervention on
the programmers part.
Input/output (I/O)
I/O is the means by which a computer receives information from the out-
side world and sends results back. Devices that provide input or output to the
computer are called peripherals. On a typical personal computer, peripherals in-
clude inputs like the keyboard and mouse, and outputs such as the display and
printer. Hard disks, floppy disks and optical disks serve as both inputs and out-
puts. Computer networking is another form of I/O. Practically any device that
can be made to interface digitally may be used as I/O.
Text 5
1. Read the text below and say what characteristics are implied by its
heading? Prove it using information from the text.
2. Now read the text more carefully and incorporate the extra infor-
mation into the text. Where do you think should it go?
1. So programs and data, which pass through the CPU, must be loaded
into the main (internal) memory in order to be processed.
2. When the user runs an application, the microprocessor looks for it on secon-
dary storage devices (disks) and transfers a copy of the application into the RAM area.
3. By freeing people from routine work, computers greatly change the
content of labour. Computer modelling eliminates the need of mans presence
ally more like hardware than software. Flash memory blurs the distinction between
ROM and RAM by retaining data when turned off but being rewritable like RAM.
However, flash memory is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM
so its use is restricted to applications where high speeds are not required.
In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache
memories which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. Gener-
ally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed
data into the cache automatically, often without the need for any intervention on
the programmer’s part.

Input/output (I/O)

I/O is the means by which a computer receives information from the out-
side world and sends results back. Devices that provide input or output to the
computer are called peripherals. On a typical personal computer, peripherals in-
clude inputs like the keyboard and mouse, and outputs such as the display and
printer. Hard disks, floppy disks and optical disks serve as both inputs and out-
puts. Computer networking is another form of I/O. Practically any device that
can be made to interface digitally may be used as I/O.

Text 5
1. Read the text below and say what characteristics are implied by its
heading? Prove it using information from the text.
2. Now read the text more carefully and incorporate the extra infor-
mation into the text. Where do you think should it go?
1. So programs and data, which pass through the CPU, must be loaded
into the main (internal) memory in order to be processed.
2. When the user runs an application, the microprocessor looks for it on secon-
dary storage devices (disks) and transfers a copy of the application into the RAM area.
3. By freeing people from routine work, computers greatly change the
content of labour. Computer modelling eliminates the need of man’s presence
15