# Иностранный язык. Мартемьянова Н.В. - 25 стр.

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• ## Иностранный язык

25
present-day capitals of England and Scotland stand on or near these two ancient
trade centres. For money the Celts used iron bars, until they began to copy the
Roman coins they saw used in Gaul(France).
According to the Romans, the Celts men wore shirts and breeches (short trousers)
and striped or checked cloaks fastened by a pin. It is possible that the Scottish dress
and tartan developed from this cloak.
NORMAN RULE
Unlike the Germanic invasions, the Norman invasion was small-scale. There
was no such things as a Norman area of settlement. Instead, the Norman Nobles
were given the ownership of land and of the people living on it.
William saw England as an extension of his French domains. He had all land
divided into manors. Most manors contained a village. Great nobles, or barons, were
given several manors in return for a promise to serve him in war. They also had to
give him part of the produce of the land. The barons gave some of their manors t
knights (lesser nobles), who paid them for the land in the same way. That was the
strict feudal system imposed by William: barons were directly responsible to the
king, knights were responsible to a baron.
Under the barons and knights were the peasantry, who were often little better
than slaves. Over three quarters of the country people were serfs who were not free
to leave their lords service or his land without permission.
William kept the Anglo-Saxon system of sheriffs, and used these as a balance to
local nobles. He kept a fifth of the farmland to himself. As a result, England unlike
France, had only one powerful family.
Most of the Norman nobles had land on both sides of the English Channel, in
England and in Normandy.
A very small number of Saxon lords kept their lands. All the others lost
everything. Many of them fled to lowland Scotland. After each English rebellion
there was more land to give away. Over 4,000 English landlords were replaced by
200 Norman ones. By 1086, only two of the greater landlords and only two bishops
were English.
In 1086, Williams officials surveyed much of England to record the ownership,
size and value of each manor
THE REASON FOR THE HUDRED YEAR WAR
Flanders had grown to be the industrial center of northern Europe and had
become extremely wealthy through its cloth manufacture. It could not produce
enough wool to satisfy its market and imported fine fleece from England. England
depended upon this trade for its foreign exchange. During the 1200s, the upper
class English had adopted Norman fashions and switched from beer to wine, (note
that beer and wine were very important elements in the medieval diet). Both contain
vitamin and yeast complexes that the medieval diet, especially during the winter, did
not provide. Besides, the preservation of food was a difficult matter in that era, and
the alcohol in beer and wine represented a large number of calories stored in an
inexpensive and effective fashion. People did get drunk during the Middle Ages, but
most could not afford to do so. Beer and wine were valued as food and were priced
accordingly.
                                        25

present-day capitals of England and Scotland stand on or near these two ancient
trade centres. For money the Celts used iron bars, until they began to copy the
Roman coins they saw used in Gaul(France).
According to the Romans, the Celts men wore shirts and breeches (short trousers)
and striped or checked cloaks fastened by a pin. It is possible that the Scottish dress
and tartan developed from this cloak.
NORMAN RULE
Unlike the Germanic invasions, the Norman invasion was small-scale. There
was no such things as a Norman area of settlement. Instead, the Norman Nobles
were given the ownership of land – and of the people living on it.
William saw England as an extension of his French domains. He had all land
divided into manors. Most manors contained a village. Great nobles, or barons, were
given several manors in return for a promise to serve him in war. They also had to
give him part of the produce of the land. The barons gave some of their manors t
knights (lesser nobles), who paid them for the land in the same way. That was the
strict feudal system imposed by William: barons were directly responsible to the
king, knights were responsible to a baron.
Under the barons and knights were the peasantry, who were often little better
than slaves. Over three quarters of the country people were serfs who were not free
to leave their lord’s service or his land without permission.
William kept the Anglo-Saxon system of sheriffs, and used these as a balance to
local nobles. He kept a fifth of the farmland to himself. As a result, England unlike
France, had only one powerful family.
Most of the Norman nobles had land on both sides of the English Channel, in
England and in Normandy.
A very small number of Saxon lords kept their lands. All the others lost
everything. Many of them fled to lowland Scotland. After each English rebellion
there was more land to give away. Over 4,000 English landlords were replaced by
200 Norman ones. By 1086, only two of the greater landlords and only two bishops
were English.
In 1086, William’s officials surveyed much of England to record the ownership,
size and value of each manor
THE REASON FOR THE HUDRED YEAR WAR
Flanders had grown to be the industrial center of northern Europe and had
become extremely wealthy through its cloth manufacture. It could not produce
enough wool to satisfy its market and imported fine fleece from England. England
depended upon this trade for its foreign exchange. During the 1200’s, the upper
class English had adopted Norman fashions and switched from beer to wine, (note
that beer and wine were very important elements in the medieval diet). Both contain
vitamin and yeast complexes that the medieval diet, especially during the winter, did
not provide. Besides, the preservation of food was a difficult matter in that era, and
the alcohol in beer and wine represented a large number of calories stored in an
inexpensive and effective fashion. People did get drunk during the Middle Ages, but
most could not afford to do so. Beer and wine were valued as food and were priced
accordingly.