Английский язык. Учебное пособие. Бабушкин А.П - 17 стр.


stimulate governmental action. The Miami case is a dramatic example. The acquittal
of the police for murder was followed by terribly destructive rioting by blacks, who
charged state officials with gross injustice and insensitivity to the rights of black
citizens. When federal officials initiate their own cases after conclusion of such a
state case, they believe the evidence warrants conviction
for some
crime and they
decide to try again in their own judicial territory.
A more common and typical link between state and federal judicial systems
occurs when convicted criminals held in state jails or prisons petition the federal
courts for a review of their conviction and imprisonment, arguing that state actions
violated their constitutional rights. They use a legal strategy based on federal habeas
corpus laws. Habeas corpus literally means “you have the body” and it requires a
state government to show good reason for the imprisonment. It is an attempt by a
prisoner to obtain a federal review of a conviction on constitutional grounds and a
new trial or release from jail. Although it is relatively easy and common for prisoners
to obtain a reversal of their conviction on these grounds, federal judges
normally require that state prisoners appeal to other state courts before granting a
release or a reversal.
Scan the texts for answers to the following questions.
1. Is the decision about which courts to use automatic?
2. The federal system is not very complex, is it?
3. The authority of state courts is not always clear, is it?
4. What does “Overlapping Jurisdiction” mean?
5. What does “concurrent jurisdiction” mean?
6. What does the termdiversity cases” mean?
7. What options does concurrent jurisdiction give the litigants?
8. What are the peculiarities of raising a federal question?
9. What sort of crimes are referred to “federal crimes”?
10. What are the examples of crimes violating both state and federal laws?
11. Is federal involvement in state cases merely a technical or strictly legal issue?
12. In what way do prisoners try to obtain a reversal of their conviction?
Vocabulary Study
I. Supply the word from the texts which is a periphrasis of the following.
(For the answers, see page 24).
1. throughout a nation 2. sufficiently interesting for reporting 3. involve duplication
4. judgement that a person is not guilty 5. the convicting of a person for a crime 6.
written order giving official authority 7. having good effect 8. violent outburst of
lawlessness 9. person engaged in a lawsuit 10. cooperating 11. right or power of
choosing 12. variety 13. give way 14. that branch of Government which controls