# Фрагменты когнитивной психологии. Бабушкин А.П. - 4 стр.

Составители:

Рубрика:

• ## Иностранный язык

4
4. Group the words given below into the pairs of antonyms (if it is necessary, consult a
dictionary).
Ancient, different, frequently, Eastern, internal, grown-ups, limit, children,
simple, long, origin, the same, complex, young, seldom, Western, knowledge, external,
ignorance, short.
5. Read and translate the text:
The History of Cognitive Psychology
In Western civilization, interest in human cognition can be traced to the ancient
Greeks. Plato and Aristotle, in their discussions of the nature and origin of knowledge,
speculated on memory and thought. These early discussions, which were essentially
philosophical in nature, eventually developed into a centuries-long debate. The two
positions were empiricism, which held that all knowledge comes from experience, and
nativism, which held that children come into the world with a great deal of innate
knowledge. This debate intensified in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth
centuries. Though the arguments were at their core philosophical, they frequently
slipped into psychological speculations about human cognition.
During this long period of philosophical debate, such sciences as astronomy,
physics, chemistry, and biology developed markedly. Curiously, no attempt was made
to apply the scientific method to the understanding of human cognition; this
understanding did not take place until the end of the nineteenth century. Certainly, no
technical or conceptual barriers existed to prevent the study of cognitive psychology
earlier. But cognitive psychology, like many other sciences, suffered because of our
egocentric, mystical, and confused attitude about ourselves and our own nature. It had
seemed inconceivable before the nineteenth centure that the workings of the human
mind could be susceptible to scientific analysis. As a consequence, cognitive
psychology as a science is only a little more than 100 years old and lags far behind
many other sciences.
Psychology in Germany
The date usually cited as marking the beginning of psychology as a science is
1879, when Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig,
Germany. Wundt’s psychology was cognitive psychology (in contrast to other divisions
of psychology, such as comparative, clinical, or social), although he had far-ranging
views on many subjects. The method of inquiry used by Wundt, his students, and a
large portion of the early psychologist was introspection. In this method, highly trained
observers reported the contents of their consciousness under carefully controlled
conditions. The basic belief was that the workings of the mind should be open to self-
observation.
Drawing on the empiricism of the British philosophers, Wundt and others
believed that very intense self-inspection would be able to identify the primitive
                                           4
4. Group the words given below into the pairs of antonyms (if it is necessary, consult a
dictionary).
Ancient, different, frequently, Eastern, internal, grown-ups, limit, children,
simple, long, origin, the same, complex, young, seldom, Western, knowledge, external,
ignorance, short.

5. Read and translate the text:

The History of Cognitive Psychology

In Western civilization, interest in human cognition can be traced to the ancient
Greeks. Plato and Aristotle, in their discussions of the nature and origin of knowledge,
speculated on memory and thought. These early discussions, which were essentially
philosophical in nature, eventually developed into a centuries-long debate. The two
positions were empiricism, which held that all knowledge comes from experience, and
nativism, which held that children come into the world with a great deal of innate
knowledge. This debate intensified in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth
centuries. Though the arguments were at their core philosophical, they frequently
slipped into psychological speculations about human cognition.
During this long period of philosophical debate, such sciences as astronomy,
physics, chemistry, and biology developed markedly. Curiously, no attempt was made
to apply the scientific method to the understanding of human cognition; this
understanding did not take place until the end of the nineteenth century. Certainly, no
technical or conceptual barriers existed to prevent the study of cognitive psychology
earlier. But cognitive psychology, like many other sciences, suffered because of our
egocentric, mystical, and confused attitude about ourselves and our own nature. It had
seemed inconceivable before the nineteenth centure that the workings of the human
mind could be susceptible to scientific analysis. As a consequence, cognitive
psychology as a science is only a little more than 100 years old and lags far behind
many other sciences.

Psychology in Germany

The date usually cited as marking the beginning of psychology as a science is
1879, when Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig,
Germany. Wundt’s psychology was cognitive psychology (in contrast to other divisions
of psychology, such as comparative, clinical, or social), although he had far-ranging
views on many subjects. The method of inquiry used by Wundt, his students, and a
large portion of the early psychologist was introspection. In this method, highly trained
observers reported the contents of their consciousness under carefully controlled
conditions. The basic belief was that the workings of the mind should be open to self-
observation.
Drawing on the empiricism of the British philosophers, Wundt and others
believed that very intense self-inspection would be able to identify the primitive