# Фрагменты когнитивной психологии. Бабушкин А.П. - 7 стр.

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4. Fill the blanks with the appropriate word:
1) The development of computer science made a great … on cognitive
psychology. 2) There is a special laboratory at the University which deals with the
problems of … intelligence. 3) The Soviet soldier … many countries of Western
Europe. 4) During his or her lessons a teacher should develop his pupils … . 5) The
word “ … ” has the other meaning besides “pretence”. 6) These two problems are
closely … . 7) The computer technology … only in the 20-th century.
5. Read and translate the text:
The Reemergence of Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology, as we know it today, emerged in the two decades between
1950 and 1970. Three main influences account for the modern development of cognitive
psychology. The first was research on human performance that was given a great boost
during World War II, when practical information was badly needed on training soldiers
to use sophisticated equipment and dealing with problems like breakdown of attention.
Behaviorism offered no help for such practical issues. While the work during the war
had a very applied bent, its character stayed with psychologists when they went back to
their academic laboratories after the war. The work of the British psychologist Donald
Broadbent at the applied Psychology Research Unit in Cambridge was probably most
influential in integration ideas from human performance with new ideas that were
developing in an area called information theory. Information theory was an abstract way
of analyzing the processing of information. He developed his ideas most directly with
regard to perception and attention, but such analyses now pervade all of cognitive
psychology.
Closely related to the development of the information-processing approach were
developments in computer science, particularly artificial intelligence, which tries to get
computers to behave intelligently. The direct influence of computer-based theories on
cognitive psychology has always been minimal. The indirect influence, however, has
been enormous. A great number of concepts has been taken from computer science and
used in psychological theories. Probably more important observing how we could
analyze the intelligent behavior of a machine has largely liberated us from our
inhibitions about analyzing our own intelligence.
The third field of influence on cognitive psychology is linguistics. In the 1950s,
Noam Chomsky a linguist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, began to
develop a new mode of analyzing the structure of language. His work showed that
language was much more complex than had previously been believed and that many of
the prevailing behavioristic formulations were incapable of explaining these
complexities.
Cognitive psychology has grown rapidly since the 1950s. A very important event
was the publication of Ulric Neisser’s Cognitive Psychology in 1967. It consisted of six
chapters on perception and attention and four chapters on language, memory, and
                                            7
4. Fill the blanks with the appropriate word:

1) The development of computer science made a great … on cognitive
psychology. 2) There is a special laboratory at the University which deals with the
problems of … intelligence. 3) The Soviet soldier … many countries of Western
Europe. 4) During his or her lessons a teacher should develop his pupils … . 5) The
word “ … ” has the other meaning besides “pretence”. 6) These two problems are
closely … . 7) The computer technology … only in the 20-th century.

5. Read and translate the text:

The Reemergence of Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive psychology, as we know it today, emerged in the two decades between
1950 and 1970. Three main influences account for the modern development of cognitive
psychology. The first was research on human performance that was given a great boost
during World War II, when practical information was badly needed on training soldiers
to use sophisticated equipment and dealing with problems like breakdown of attention.
Behaviorism offered no help for such practical issues. While the work during the war
had a very applied bent, its character stayed with psychologists when they went back to
their academic laboratories after the war. The work of the British psychologist Donald
Broadbent at the applied Psychology Research Unit in Cambridge was probably most
influential in integration ideas from human performance with new ideas that were
developing in an area called information theory. Information theory was an abstract way
of analyzing the processing of information. He developed his ideas most directly with
regard to perception and attention, but such analyses now pervade all of cognitive
psychology.
Closely related to the development of the information-processing approach were
developments in computer science, particularly artificial intelligence, which tries to get
computers to behave intelligently. The direct influence of computer-based theories on
cognitive psychology has always been minimal. The indirect influence, however, has
been enormous. A great number of concepts has been taken from computer science and
used in psychological theories. Probably more important observing how we could
analyze the intelligent behavior of a machine has largely liberated us from our
inhibitions about analyzing our own intelligence.
The third field of influence on cognitive psychology is linguistics. In the 1950s,
Noam Chomsky a linguist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, began to
develop a new mode of analyzing the structure of language. His work showed that
language was much more complex than had previously been believed and that many of
the prevailing behavioristic formulations were incapable of explaining these
complexities.
Cognitive psychology has grown rapidly since the 1950s. A very important event
was the publication of Ulric Neisser’s Cognitive Psychology in 1967. It consisted of six
chapters on perception and attention and four chapters on language, memory, and