# Theoretical phonetics. Study guide for second year students. Борискина О.О - 76 стр.

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76
The meaning of the verbs may, should, must changes depending on whether
they are stressed or unstressed, e. g. You ´may go — possibility. You may ´go -
permission.
Stresses in an utterance provide the basis for identification and un-
derstanding of the content, they help to perform constitutive, distinctive and
identificatory function of intonation. These functions are performed jointly with
the pitch component of intonation.
Rhythm and Tempo
Rhythm is the regular alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables. It is
so typical of an English phrase that the incorrect rhythm betrays the non-English
origin of the speaker even in cases of "correct" pronunciation.
The phenomenon of rhythm is closely connected with the phonetic nature
of stress. The units of the rhythmical structure of an utterance are stress groups
or rhythmic groups. The perception of boundaries between rhythmic groups is
associated with the stressed syllables or peaks of prominence.
Each sense-group of the sentence is pronounced at approximately the same
period of time, unstressed syllables are pronounced more rapidly: the greater the
number of unstressed syllables, the quicker they are pronounced.
Rhythm is connected with sentence stress. Under the influence of rhythm
words which are normally pronounced with two equally strong stresses may lose
one of them, or may have their word stress realized differently, e. g.
'Picca'dilly —'Piccadilly 'Circus — 'close to Picca'dilly
'prin'cess — a 'royal prin'cess
'indiarubber — a 'piece of india'rubber — an 'indiarubber ֽball
Pausation and Timbre
Pausation is closely connected with the other components of intonation.
The number and the length of pauses affect the general tempo of speech. A
slower tempo makes the utterance more prominent and more important. It is an
additional means of expressing the speaker's emotions.
Pauses made between two sentences are obligatory. They are longer than
pauses between sense-groups and are marked by two parallel bars /||/. Pauses
They are marked /|/.
Pauses are usually divided into filled and unfilled, corresponding to voiced
and silent pauses. Pauses are distinguished on the basis of relative length: unit,
double and treble. Their length is relative to the tempo and rhythmicality norms
of an individual. The exception is "end-of-utterance" pause, which length is
controlled by the person who is about to speak.
Another subdivision of pauses is into breathing and hesitation.
Pauses play not only segmentative and delimitative functions, they show
relations between utterances and intonation groups, performing a unifying,
constitutive function. They play the semantic and syntactic role, e. g. There was
no love lost between them (they loved each other). There was no love | lost
between them (they did not love each other).
                                        76
The meaning of the verbs may, should, must changes depending on whether
they are stressed or unstressed, e. g. You ´may go  possibility. You may ´go -
permission.
Stresses in an utterance provide the basis for identification and un-
derstanding of the content, they help to perform constitutive, distinctive and
identificatory function of intonation. These functions are performed jointly with
the pitch component of intonation.
Rhythm and Tempo
Rhythm is the regular alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables. It is
so typical of an English phrase that the incorrect rhythm betrays the non-English
origin of the speaker even in cases of "correct" pronunciation.
The phenomenon of rhythm is closely connected with the phonetic nature
of stress. The units of the rhythmical structure of an utterance are stress groups
or rhythmic groups. The perception of boundaries between rhythmic groups is
associated with the stressed syllables or peaks of prominence.
Each sense-group of the sentence is pronounced at approximately the same
period of time, unstressed syllables are pronounced more rapidly: the greater the
number of unstressed syllables, the quicker they are pronounced.
Rhythm is connected with sentence stress. Under the influence of rhythm
words which are normally pronounced with two equally strong stresses may lose
one of them, or may have their word stress realized differently, e. g.
'Picca'dilly 'Piccadilly 'Circus  'close to Picca'dilly
'prin'cess  a 'royal prin'cess
'indiarubber  a 'piece of india'rubber  an 'indiarubber ֽball
Pausation and Timbre
Pausation is closely connected with the other components of intonation.
The number and the length of pauses affect the general tempo of speech. A
slower tempo makes the utterance more prominent and more important. It is an
additional means of expressing the speaker's emotions.
Pauses made between two sentences are obligatory. They are longer than
pauses between sense-groups and are marked by two parallel bars /||/. Pauses
They are marked /|/.
Pauses are usually divided into filled and unfilled, corresponding to voiced
and silent pauses. Pauses are distinguished on the basis of relative length: unit,
double and treble. Their length is relative to the tempo and rhythmicality norms
of an individual. The exception is "end-of-utterance" pause, which length is
controlled by the person who is about to speak.
Another subdivision of pauses is into breathing and hesitation.
Pauses play not only segmentative and delimitative functions, they show
relations between utterances and intonation groups, performing a unifying,
constitutive function. They play the semantic and syntactic role, e. g. There was
no love lost between them (they loved each other). There was no love | lost
between them (they did not love each other).