# Welcome to the computer world. Practice materials for 1st year students. Еранина Т.И - 25 стр.

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25
UNIT 4
Computer operations
Task 1. Read and translate the texts:
Types of data
A. Much of the processing computers can be divided into
two general types of operation. Arithmetic operations are computations
with numbers such as addition, subtraction, and other mathematic
procedures. Early computers performed mostly arithmetic operations,
which gave the false impression that only engineers and scientists could
benefit from computers. Of equal importance is the computers ability to
compare two values to determine if one is larger than, or equal to the
other. This is called a logical operation. The comparison may take place
between numbers, letters, sounds, or even drawings. The processing of
the computer is based on the computer’s ability to perform logical and
arithmetic operations.
Instructions must be given to the computer to tell it how to
process the data it receives and the format needed for output and
storage. The ability to follow the program sets computers apart from
most tools. However, new tools ranging from typewriters to microwave
ovens have embedded computers, or built-in computers. An embedded
computer can accept data to use several options in it’s program, but the
program itself cannot be changed. This makes these devices flexible
and convenient but not the embedded computers itself.
B. With the advent of new computer applications and
hardware, the definition of data has expanded to include many types.
Numeric data consists of numbers and decimal points, as
well as the plus (+) and minus (-) signs. Both arithmetic operations and
logical operations are performed on numeric data. This means that
numbers can be used for calculations as well as sorted and compared to
each other.
Text, or textual data, can contain any combination of letters,
numbers and special characters. Sometimes textual data is known as
alphanumeric data.
Various forms of data that we can hear and see makes up
audio-visual data. The computer can produce sounds, music and even
human voice. It can also accept audio information as an input. Data can
also take form of drawings and video sequences.
Physical data is captured from the environment. For
example, light, temperature and pressure are all types of physical data.
                                        25

UNIT 4

Computer operations

Task 1. Read and translate the texts:

Types of data

A. Much of the processing computers can be divided into
two general types of operation. Arithmetic operations are computations
with numbers such as addition, subtraction, and other mathematic
procedures. Early computers performed mostly arithmetic operations,
which gave the false impression that only engineers and scientists could
benefit from computers. Of equal importance is the computers ability to
compare two values to determine if one is larger than, or equal to the
other. This is called a logical operation. The comparison may take place
between numbers, letters, sounds, or even drawings. The processing of
the computer is based on the computers ability to perform logical and
arithmetic operations.
Instructions must be given to the computer to tell it how to
process the data it receives and the format needed for output and
storage. The ability to follow the program sets computers apart from
most tools. However, new tools ranging from typewriters to microwave
ovens have embedded computers, or built-in computers. An embedded
computer can accept data to use several options in its program, but the
program itself cannot be changed. This makes these devices flexible
and convenient but not the embedded computers itself.
B. With the advent of new computer applications and
hardware, the definition of data has expanded to include many types.
Numeric data consists of numbers and decimal points, as
well as the plus (+) and minus (-) signs. Both arithmetic operations and
logical operations are performed on numeric data. This means that
numbers can be used for calculations as well as sorted and compared to
each other.
Text, or textual data, can contain any combination of letters,
numbers and special characters. Sometimes textual data is known as
alphanumeric data.
Various forms of data that we can hear and see makes up
audio-visual data. The computer can produce sounds, music and even
human voice. It can also accept audio information as an input. Data can
also take form of drawings and video sequences.
Physical data is captured from the environment. For
example, light, temperature and pressure are all types of physical data.