Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 4 курса специальности 020700 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В. - 3 стр.



1. Read the text. Look up new words in the vocabulary.
The new monarchy
The Hundred Years War was followed by a long power struggle (1455-85) for
the English Crown between the two branches of the royal family, which Walter
Scott later called The Wars of the Roses.
The man who ended the war and united the two royal houses and their
supporters was Henry Tudor, duke of Richmond, who became King Henry VII
giving origin to the Tudor dynasty (1485-1603).
Henry avoided quarrels with neighbours and made important trade agreements
with European countries. He was careful to keep the friendship of the merchant
and lesser gentry classes who produced most of the nations wealth. Like him they
wanted peace and prosperity. He understood earlier than most people that
Englands future wealth would depend on international trade and he built a large
fleet of merchant ships. Henry VII built the foundations of a wealthy nation state
and a powerful monarchy.
He sent his steam to explore the Atlantic coast of North America soon after
Columbuss great discovery. But England did not start colonizing the new
continent until the early seventeenth century when it had become strong enough.
A Truly English Church
In the 1530s, Henry VIII, wasteful and ambitious, broke away from Rome, and
Parliament made him head of the Church of England. An English Bible was
placed in every church for people to read. After a careful survey of Church
property Henry VIII closed 560 monasteries and took over their land and wealth.
He sold much of their lands to the rising classes of landowners and merchants to
boost his popularity with them. England became politically a Protestant country,
even though the religion was in fact still Catholic. Nevertheless, Henry made the
Church in England truly English.
It was Henrys creation of the Royal Navy that enabled England to realize her
imperialistic ambitions under Elizabeth. He had spent a lot of money on warships
and guns, making English guns the best in Europe.
The New Trading Nation
Elizabeth I (1558-1603) was the first of three long-reigning queens in British
history (the other two are Queen Victoria, 1837-1901, and Queen Elizabeth II,
succeeded in 1952). Her reign is considered by many as the Golden Age of
English history, whose symbols were Sir Francis Drake and William Shakespeare.