Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 4 курса специальности 020700 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В. - 4 стр.



The discovery of America placed England at the centre of the worlds trading
routes, and brilliant naval commanders (especially Sir Francis Drake and Sir
Walter Raleigh) enabled England to dominate these trade routes.
Elizabeth and her advisers considered trade the most important foreign policy
matter, as Henry VII had done. For them Englands greatest trade rival was also
its greatest enemy. This idea remained the basis of Englands foreign policy until
the nineteenth century. A number of companies were established to trade with
various regions of the world. The Moscow Company had been developing
profitable trade with Russia. The East India Company was founded to trade with
the East Indies (Indonesia); competing with the Dutch and later with the French it
soon began to operate in India, Persia and even in Japan. The Africa Company
began selling slaves to the Spanish in America. And several others.
Elizabeth followed two policies. She encouraged English sailors to attack and
destroy Spanish ships bringing treasures back from America, and the treasure was
shared with the queen. She also encouraged English traders to settle abroad and to
create colonies. This second policy led directly to Britains colonial empire of the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
2. Read the following phrases aloud. Find the sentences with these phrases in
the text. Read them aloud and translate into English.
a) Power struggle for the crown; the War of the Roses; to unite their supporters;
to give origin to a new dynasty.
b) Quarrels with neighbours; to keep the friendship of the wealthy classes; most
of the nations wealth; peace and prosperity; to depend on international trade; a
fleet of merchant ships; to build the foundations of a powerful monarchy; to
explore the Atlantic coast; to colonize the new continent.
c) Wasreful and ambitious; to break away from the Roman Catholic Church; head
of the Church of England; to take over Church property; the rising classes of
landowners and merchants; to create the navy; to spend a lot of money on
warships and guns.
3. Comprehension check. Answer the following questions. Check your
answers with the text.
1. Who fought in the Wars of the Roses, and why?
2. Who united the two rival houses and founded a new dynasty?
3. What kind of foreign policy did Henry VII pursue?
4. What was his home policy?
5. Why did Henry VIII break with Rome?
6. What was his second achievement?
7. What do English historians rate Elizabeth I?
8. Shakespeare and Drake are considered to be the symbols of her age. Why do
you think?