Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 3 курса специальности 020700 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В. - 9 стр.



3. Under the barons and knights were the peasantry, who were often little better
than slaves. Over three quarters of the country people were serfs who were not free
to leave their lords service or his land without permission.
4. William kept the Anglo-Saxon system of sheriffs, and used these as a
balance to local nobles. He kept a fifth of the farmland to himself. As a result,
England unlike France, had only one powerful family.
5. Most of the Norman nobles had land on both sides of the English Channel,
in England and in Normandy.
6. A very small number of Saxon lords kept their lands. All the others lost
everything. Many of them fled to lowland Scotland. After each English rebellion
there was more land to give away. Over 4,000 English landlords were replaced by
200 Norman ones. By 1086, only two of the greater landlords and only two bishops
were English.
7. In 1086, Williams officials surveyed much of England to record the
ownership, size and value of each manor Their records formed The Domesday
Book which provided information for Williams tax offices.
8. French became the language of the countrys ruling class for several years.
But Anglo-Normans had to talk to the conquered population traders, craftsmen
and peasants, and fairly soon they (the third generation) became bilingual.
1. The Hundred Years War was followed by a long power struggle(1455-85)
for the English Crown between the two branches of the royal family, which Walter
Scott later called the Wars o the Roses.
2. The man who ended the war and united the two royal houses and their
supporters was Henry Tudor, duke of Richmond, who became King Henry VII
giving origin to the Tudor dynasty (1485-1603).
3. Henry avoided quarrels with neighbors and made important trade
agreements with European countries. He was careful to keep the friendship of the
merchant and lesser gentry classes who produced most of the nations wealth. Like
him they wanted peace and prosperity. He understood earlier than most people that
Englands future wealth would depend on international trade and he built a large
fleet of merchant ships. Henry VII built the foundations of a wealthy nation state
and a powerful monarchy.
4. He sent his seamen to explore the Atlantic coast of North America soon after
Columbuss great discovery. But England did not start colonizing the new
continent until the early seventeenth century when it had become strong enough.
5. In the 1530s, henry VIII, wasteful and ambitious, broke away from Rome,
and Parliament made him head of the Church of England. An English Bible was
placed in every church for people to read. After a careful survey of Church
property Henry VIII closed 560 monasteries and took over their land and wealth.
He sold much of their lands to the rising classes of landowners and merchants to
boost his popularity with them. England became politically a Protestant country,