Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 3-4 курса специальности 030401 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В - 23 стр.

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combine rigorous truthfulness and freedom from bias with the gift of developed
expression. As examples of literary art, early historical accounts are interesting
and dramatically unified, though sometimes at the expense of truth or verifiability
of evidence. Impartiality was at least a goal, if it was not always achieved. Many
of these works set standards for historical writing in their lands and beyond their
bounds. The complex relation between literary art and historiography has been
and continues to be a subject of serious debate.
Modern historians aim to reconstruct a record of human activities and to
achieve a more profound understanding of them. This conception is quite recent,
dating from the late 18
th
and early 19
th
centuries when history aligned with other
modern sciences as an independent academic discipline with its own critical
method and approach, requiring rigorous preparation. The combination of the
neutral non-partisan approach to the sources with the acute realization that all
observers are the products of their specific time and place and are thus necessarily
subjective recorders promised to break historys ancient connection to the intuitive
literary arts.
The purpose of history as a serious endeavour to understand human life can
never be fulfilled by the mere shifting of evidence for facts. Fact-finding is only
the foundation for the selection, arrangement, and explanation that constitute
historical interpretation. The process of interpretation informs all aspects of
historical inquiry, beginning with the selection of a subject for investigation,
because the very choice of a particular event or society or institution is itself an act
of judgement that asserts the importance of the subject. Once chosen, the subject
itself suggests a provisional model of hypothesis that guides research and helps the
historian to assess and classify the available evidence and to present a detailed and
coherent account of the subject. The historian must respect the facts, avoid
ignorance and error as far as possible, and create a convincing, intellectually
satisfying interpretation.
Furthermore, in the 20
th
century the scope of history has expanded
immeasurably, in time, as archaeology and anthropology have provided