# Theoretical English Grammar. Part 1. Morphology. Бочарова М.В. - 32 стр.

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• ## Иностранный язык

(3) syntactically:
o have no syntactic functions of their own; substitute for words of other classes
(= are used in their functions) ĺ Syntactic groups of ProN:
– Noun-Pronouns (= Substantivized ProN),
o With some pronouns there is no substitution:
I, you, they, ‘dummy’ it
ĺ an extremely heterogeneous class, but it has two defining characteristics
which unite the class of pronouns and make it different from all the other word
classes:
– no lexical meaning but semantics of indication;
– no syntactic roles of their own but the function of substitution.
THE NUMERAL IN ENGLISH
o a class of notional words with two parallel sets – Cardinal and Ordinal Nu-
merals.
o General semantics:
– Cardinal Numerals express the idea of an abstract number;
– Ordinal Numerals express the idea of the order of things in succession.
o Morphologically unchangeable = have no formal morphological markers
! Cardinal Numerals should not be confused with Nouns with numerical mean-
ing
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       (3) syntactically:

o have no syntactic functions of their own; substitute for words of other classes
(= are used in their functions) � Syntactic groups of ProN:
– Noun-Pronouns (= Substantivized ProN),
o With some pronouns there is no substitution:
– I, you, they, ‘dummy’ it

� an extremely heterogeneous class, but it has two defining characteristics
which unite the class of pronouns and make it different from all the other word
classes:
– no lexical meaning but semantics of indication;
– no syntactic roles of their own but the function of substitution.

THE NUMERAL IN ENGLISH

o a class of notional words with two parallel sets – Cardinal and Ordinal Nu-
merals.

o General semantics:
– Cardinal Numerals express the idea of an abstract number;
– Ordinal Numerals express the idea of the order of things in succession.

o Morphologically unchangeable = have no formal morphological markers

! Cardinal Numerals should not be confused with Nouns with numerical mean-
ing

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