# Theoretical English Grammar. Part 2. Syntax. Бочарова М.В. - 20 стр.

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• ## Иностранный язык

A real life situation A sentence
– An event
– Its participants
– Its circumstances
+ interrelations between them
– the predicate (usu. V)
– arguments (usu. noun groups refer-
ring to the predicate)
+ syntactic and semantic relations be-
tween them
o Arguments perform definite semantic roles according to the type of the par-
ticipant of the real life situation they name.
o The function of the predicate is central to the semantic structure of the sen-
tence, as:
1) its semantics determines the whole range of semantic roles that can be ex-
pressed in the sentence (= the role structure of the verb / the frame of the
verb); some roles manifested by the verb are obligatory, others are optional;
2) it reflects the relations between its arguments (ĺ between the participants of
the real life situation).
o The basic semantic pattern of the sentence = proposition:
The meaning of action / event + the minimal set of semantic roles, which makes
the sentence semantically complete.
SEMANTIC ROLES
o Agent – an animate object, usu. a human being, that performs an action con-
sciously and/ or purposefully; + an actional verb:
1a. Causative agent performs an action;
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             A real life situation                        A sentence
– An event                                 – the predicate (usu. V)
– Its participants                         – arguments (usu. noun groups refer-
– Its circumstances                        ring to the predicate)
+ interrelations between them              + syntactic and semantic relations be-
tween them

o Arguments perform definite semantic roles according to the type of the par-
ticipant of the real life situation they name.

o The function of the predicate is central to the semantic structure of the sen-
tence, as:

1) its semantics determines the whole range of semantic roles that can be ex-
pressed in the sentence (= the role structure of the verb / the frame of the
verb); some roles manifested by the verb are obligatory, others are optional;

2) it reflects the relations between its arguments (� between the participants of
the real life situation).

o The basic semantic pattern of the sentence = proposition:
The meaning of action / event + the minimal set of semantic roles, which makes
the sentence semantically complete.

SEMANTIC ROLES

o Agent – an animate object, usu. a human being, that performs an action con-
sciously and/ or purposefully; + an actional verb:
1a. Causative agent performs an action;
20