# Theoretical English Grammar. Part 2. Syntax. Бочарова М.В. - 21 стр.

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• ## Иностранный язык

1b. Permissive agent lets an action be performed by removing the obstacle
for the object.
o Nominative / External causer / Source – an animate or inanimate object
which is the ‘source’ of the action.
o Patient – the animate / inanimate participant which is directly affected by the
action performed by another participant (Agent) and undergoes a change as a re-
sult.
o Factitive / Resultant – an inanimate object which is created/ produced as a
result of the action.
o Recipient / Beneficiary – an animate being that receives sth as a result of the
action.
o Instrument – an inanimate object which an agent uses to perform the action.
o Locative – place.
o Temporative – time.
o Event / Action.
(NB: it is NOT a semantic role if it is expressed by the verb in the predicate!)
o Experiencer – an animate participant that perceives, feels or realizes sth.
o Object of perception – an animate or inanimate object that is perceived (by
Experiencer).
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   1b. Permissive agent lets an action be performed by removing the obstacle
for the object.

o Nominative / External causer / Source – an animate or inanimate object
which is the ‘source’ of the action.

o Patient – the animate / inanimate participant which is directly affected by the
action performed by another participant (Agent) and undergoes a change as a re-
sult.

o Factitive / Resultant – an inanimate object which is created/ produced as a
result of the action.

o Recipient / Beneficiary – an animate being that receives sth as a result of the
action.

o Instrument – an inanimate object which an agent uses to perform the action.

o Locative – place.

o Temporative – time.

o Event / Action.
(NB: it is NOT a semantic role if it is expressed by the verb in the predicate!)

o Experiencer – an animate participant that perceives, feels or realizes sth.

o Object of perception – an animate or inanimate object that is perceived (by
Experiencer).
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