# Writing. Part 2. Домбровская И.В - 28 стр.

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27
First and Last Paragraph Techniques.
The first paragraph may:
- state a strong, firm opinion e.g. Vegetarians are definitely healthier than meat-
eaters.
- make reference to a strange scene or situation e.g. Will frogs ever become
household pets?
- be addressed to the reader directly (in less formal articles) e.g. What do you
think ? Have you ever ? If you want to
- start with a quotation e.g. Try not to become a man of success but rather try to
become a man of value. or a rhetorical question (a rhetorical question is a
question which needs no reply) e.g. Do the students know how fortunate they
- start with a problem which needs a solution e.g. Can you explain the problem
of
The last paragraph may:
- state a personal opinion e.g. I believe , In my opinion , It seems that etc
- give the reader something to consider e.g. After all, is it fair to
- summarise the article e.g. In conclusion , To sum up , On the whole etc
- end with a quotation e.g. Just a little more loving and a lot less fighting and
the world would be all right.
Exercise 22
Match the first with the last paragraphs. Which techniques are used for the
first/last paragraphs? Which outlines should be used for each topic?
Suggest a title for each topic.
First paragraphs
1. Physical education has long been part of the school timetable for children;
imagine an educational programme which does not include some form of
physical education.
2. Throughout history people have taken part in dangerous sports. This does
not change the fact that it is unacceptable for athletes to be seriously
injured or even lose their lives for the sake of competition.
3. The advance of technology has meant that most schoolchildren are
familiar with computers, which can be used to teach a wide variety of
subjects. But can they, and should they, replace teachers?
4. As our cities continue to grow, and villages become smaller than ever, it
is true to say that it is far better to live in a busy, crowded metropolis than
in a rural area where the pace of life is considerably slower.
5. What do you think of air travel? In a hi-tech world where air travel has
become commonplace, many people still feel that it is an unnecessary and
dangerous luxury.
6. The problem of teenage alcoholism is one that today's society must deal
with before it is allowed to increase.
                                         27

First and Last Paragraph Techniques.
The first paragraph may:
- state a strong, firm opinion e.g. Vegetarians are definitely healthier than meat-
eaters.
- make reference to a strange scene or situation e.g. Will frogs ever become
household pets?
- be addressed to the reader directly (in less formal articles) e.g. What do you
think …? Have you ever …? If you want to …
- start with a quotation e.g. “Try not to become a man of success but rather try to
become a man of value.” or a rhetorical question (a rhetorical question is a
question which needs no reply) e.g. Do the students know how fortunate they
- start with a problem which needs a solution e.g. Can you explain the problem
of …
The last paragraph may:
- state a personal opinion e.g. I believe …, In my opinion …, It seems that …etc
- give the reader something to consider e.g. After all, is it fair to …
- summarise the article e.g. In conclusion …, To sum up …, On the whole … etc
- end with a quotation e.g. “Just a little more loving and a lot less fighting and
the world would be all right.”

Exercise 22
Match the first with the last paragraphs. Which techniques are used for the
first/last paragraphs? Which outlines should be used for each topic?
Suggest a title for each topic.
First paragraphs
1. Physical education has long been part of the school timetable for children;
imagine an educational programme which does not include some form of
physical education.
2. Throughout history people have taken part in dangerous sports. This does
not change the fact that it is unacceptable for athletes to be seriously
injured or even lose their lives for the sake of competition.
3. The advance of technology has meant that most schoolchildren are
familiar with computers, which can be used to teach a wide variety of
subjects. But can they, and should they, replace teachers?
4. As our cities continue to grow, and villages become smaller than ever, it
is true to say that it is far better to live in a busy, crowded metropolis than
in a rural area where the pace of life is considerably slower.
5. What do you think of air travel? In a hi-tech world where air travel has
become commonplace, many people still feel that it is an unnecessary and
dangerous luxury.

6. The problem of teenage alcoholism is one that today's society must deal
with before it is allowed to increase.