# Writing. Part 2. Домбровская И.В - 57 стр.

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55
APPENDIX
Punctuation
Comma [ , ]
In general a comma is used to indicate a slight pause and to divide a sentence
into several parts.
A comma is used:
a. to separate words in a list. These can be nouns, adjectives or adverbs.
e.g. She bought yellow, white and pink flowers.
b. to separate main clauses which describe consecutive actions. e.g. In
case of a fire you should keep calm, leave the building, and call 999.
c. to separate a subordinate clause which precedes the main clause. e.g.
When I phone him, Ill tell him that you want to speak to him.
d. to separate main clauses which are linked by a conjunction. e.g. I was
looking forward to relaxing at the weekend, but unfortunately I had to
e. before and after a non-defining relative clause. e.g. That science-
fiction film, which was released last month, is one of the best Ive
ever seen.
from the main part of the sentence. e.g. Oh, there you are!
g. after Yes or No at the beginning of the sentence. e.g. Yes, I want
to see you tomorrow.
h. to separate a question tag from the sentence. e.g. You are 25 years
old, arent you?
j. before a short quotation. e.g. It was George Orwell who said All
animals are equal, but some are more equal than others.
Colon [ : ]
A colon is used:
a. to introduce a list of items. e.g. Please buy the following items:
b. to introduce a quotation. e.g. As Mr Morgan said:The beliefs
are etc.
c. to introduce examples (which might be complete sentences in
themselves). e.g. The insurance will pay in the following
circumstances: fire, burglary or a third party accident.
d. before words or phrases which refer back to the statement preceding
the colon and give a fuller explanation of the statement (which makes
complete sense on its own). e.g. The procedure was a complete
failure: he did not recover from the operation and subsequently died.
                                       55

APPENDIX
Punctuation
Comma [ , ]
In general a comma is used to indicate a slight pause and to divide a sentence
into several parts.
A comma is used:
a. to separate words in a list. These can be nouns, adjectives or adverbs.
e.g. She bought yellow, white and pink flowers.
b. to separate main clauses which describe consecutive actions. e.g. In
case of a fire you should keep calm, leave the building, and call 999.
c. to separate a subordinate clause which precedes the main clause. e.g.
When I phone him, I’ll tell him that you want to speak to him.
d. to separate main clauses which are linked by a conjunction. e.g. I was
looking forward to relaxing at the weekend, but unfortunately I had to
e. before and after a non-defining relative clause. e.g. That science-
fiction film, which was released last month, is one of the best I’ve
ever seen.
from the main part of the sentence. e.g. Oh, there you are!
g. after “Yes” or “No” at the beginning of the sentence. e.g. Yes, I want
to see you tomorrow.
h. to separate a question tag from the sentence. e.g. You are 25 years
old, aren’t you?
j. before a short quotation. e.g. It was George Orwell who said “All
animals are equal, but some are more equal than others.”

Colon [ : ]
A colon is used:
a. to introduce a list of items. e.g. Please buy the following items: