# Writing. Part 2. Домбровская И.В - 58 стр.

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56
Semi-colon [ ; ]
A semi-colon is used:
a. instead of a comma, where other parts of the sentence already contain
commas. e.g. He was convinced that he would win whatever the cost;
he was going to achieve his goal, whatever it would take.
b. in formal writing a semi-colon can be used to separate two main
clauses, especially when these are not joined by a conjunction. e.g.
The moon was already low in the sky; it would be morning soon.
Dash [ -- ]
A dash is used to:
a. separate a word or phrase which is independent of the rest of the
sentence. It may precede a comment or definition, or serve to
emphasise the words which follow. e.g. People were lying wounded
in the street, children were crying it was horrible.
b. to separate a comment or afterthought from the rest of the sentence.
e.g. They said they knew nothing at all about the burglary or so
they claimed.
Hyphen [ - ]
A hyphen is used:
a. to form a compound from two other words. e.g. warm-hearted
b. to form a compound from a prefix and a name. e.g. pre- Raphaelite
c. to form compound adjectives. e.g. well-mannered
d. to link a prefix with an abstract or proper noun. e.g. anti-abortion
e. to separate a prefix from a word whose first letter is the same as the
last letter of the prefix. e.g. re-evaluate
f. when writing compound numbers. e.g. twenty-one
g. when expressions of measurement, amount or quantity are used as
adjectives before a noun. e.g. a ten-pound note
Quotation Mark [ …”]
Quotation marks are used:
a. to indicate Direct Speech, at the beginning and end of the spoken
words. e.g. I want to tell you how much I appreciate your
hospitality, he said.
b. to enclose words and punctuation in Direct Speech. e.g. Why did you
c. to draw attention to a word when writing a text. e.g. Global
Warming is the key word.
d. to enclose a title of a book, play etc. e.g. Salingers Catcher in the
Rye
e. to emphasise short quotations and sayings. e.g. Do you know the
saying Nothing ventured, nothing gained?
                                      56
Semi-colon [ ; ]
A semi-colon is used:
a. instead of a comma, where other parts of the sentence already contain
commas. e.g. He was convinced that he would win whatever the cost;
he was going to achieve his goal, whatever it would take.
b. in formal writing a semi-colon can be used to separate two main
clauses, especially when these are not joined by a conjunction. e.g.
The moon was already low in the sky; it would be morning soon.

Dash [ -- ]
A dash is used to:
a. separate a word or phrase which is independent of the rest of the
sentence. It may precede a comment or definition, or serve to
emphasise the words which follow. e.g. People were lying wounded
in the street, children were crying – it was horrible.
b. to separate a comment or afterthought from the rest of the sentence.
e.g. They said they knew nothing at all about the burglary – or so
they claimed.

Hyphen [ - ]
A hyphen is used:
a. to form a compound from two other words. e.g. warm-hearted
b. to form a compound from a prefix and a name. e.g. pre- Raphaelite
c. to form compound adjectives. e.g. well-mannered
d. to link a prefix with an abstract or proper noun. e.g. anti-abortion
e. to separate a prefix from a word whose first letter is the same as the
last letter of the prefix. e.g. re-evaluate
f. when writing compound numbers. e.g. twenty-one
g. when expressions of measurement, amount or quantity are used as
adjectives before a noun. e.g. a ten-pound note

Quotation Mark [ “…”]
Quotation marks are used:
a. to indicate Direct Speech, at the beginning and end of the spoken
words. e.g. “I want to tell you how much I appreciate your
hospitality,” he said.
b. to enclose words and punctuation in Direct Speech. e.g. “Why did you
c. to draw attention to a word when writing a text. e.g. “Global
Warming” is the key word.
d. to enclose a title of a book, play etc. e.g. Salinger’s “Catcher in the
Rye”
e. to emphasise short quotations and sayings. e.g. Do you know the
saying “Nothing ventured, nothing gained”?