Учебно-методическое пособие по чтению специальной литературы для студентов 1 курса физического факультета. Дроздова И.В - 5 стр.

UptoLike

5
VI. Read the second part of the text quickly and find the key sentences about
space, time, matter, field, interactions. Summarize the second part
of the text.
properties
time
space
matter
Philosophy of Physics
Part I
Physics as a science appeared only due to the fact that its creators, Galileo, Newton,
Hooke, Huygens, Euler, Laplace, Faraday, Maxwell and many other researchers
adhered to some original philosophical principles and rules for doing science.
What are the philosophical principles, on which physics is based? At first, it is the
independence of existence of nature from our consciousness; matter is self-sufficient
and its laws of motion depend neither on God, nor on the observer. Secondly,
researches into nature should be based:
- on direct contemplation and observation;
- on precise facts;
- on experiments;
- on a faith in the cognizance of nature;
- on a faith that nothing is present in space except moving matter. All laws of
nature, all natural phenomena, all facts, connected with the motion, are causal, and
these reasons ought to be possible to find.
Based on such a (materialistic) philosophy, everyone of the famous researchers
(except for the relativists, who deviated from these principles) created or
supplemented the rules for doing science. Three of the foremost of these (not
counting the Ancient Greek and the middle ages scientists) were Kant, Huygens and
Newton.
Newton grounded his postulates about the invariance of space, time, and mass by
direct contemplation of nature instead of by the invention of hypotheses.