Учебно-методическое пособие по чтению специальной литературы для студентов 1 курса физического факультета. Дроздова И.В - 6 стр.

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Part II
Space
Space is the arena in which matter moves. The metrics of space should be Euclidean
in order not to distort the laws for the motion of matter. Space should not have any
physical properties, except an infinite volume, which can not in any way influence
the laws of motion matter. In other words, space is irrelative of anything external
(Newton).
Thus, space can not be endowed with any properties, with the exception of its three-
dimensional extension. It can not be called absolute or relative, identical or fixed, etc.
It cannot be considered as finite, at least, not until any fact of observation or
indisputable proof contradicting this premise comes to be found. Such facts,
observation and proofs, are not present. Space is an objective reality revealed to us by
sensation.
Time
Time is the second basic essence. It, as well as space, reveals itself through the
motion of matter. Time in and of itself, without relation to anything external, flows
uniformly and differentially and is named as duration. It can not influence the state or
the laws of motion of matter at all. It only passionlessly and uniformly measures the
duration of processes and phenomena. On the other hand, there can not be a process,
phenomenon or status of matter influencing the uniform course of time. Any other
properties, with the exception of duration and uniformity, can not be referred to it.
Time is an objective reality revealed to us by sensation.
Matter
Matter is a substance or a body having a spatial expansion (volume), impermeability,
viscosity, elasticity, hardness, form and spectral responsiveness.
Quantity of matter mass is determined by its resistance to acceleration. In the
common case:
m = F / a.
And above the surface of the Earth by weight and the acceleration of gravity:
m = P / g.
Newtons definition that mass is a measure of the quantity of matter (quantity of
mass is proportional to its density and its volume) is incomplete, as it does not
define more precisely this proportionality to acceleration.
Matter is the objective reality given to us be sensation.
As a result of the accumulation and extension of knowledge about matter, from
astronomical and microscopic observation, with the help of the methods of analogy,
induction and deduction, and also of logical analysis, it is possible to assert that