# Welcome to the computer world. Practice materials for 1st year students. Еранина Т.И - 12 стр.

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• ## Иностранный язык

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processing. These early electromechanical data processors were called
unit record machines because each punched card contained a unit of
data.
In the mid—1940s electronic computers were developed to
perform calculations for military and scientific purposes. By the end of
the 1960s commercial models of these computers were widely used for
both scientific computation and business data processing. Initially these
computers accepted their input data from punched cards. By the late
1970s punched cards had been almost universally replaced by keyboard
terminals. Since that time advances in science have led to the
proliferation of computers throughout our society, and the past is but
the prologue that gives us a glimpse of the future.
Vocabulary:
calculating device— вычислительное устройство
multiple— кратный
abacus— счеты
slide rule— логарифмическая линейка
logarithm table— логарифмическая таблица
calculus — исчисление; математический анализ
general-purpose— общего назначения, универсальный
to cut out the human being altogether — полностью исключить
человека
to manipulate — обрабатывать, преобразовывать; управлять
data processing— обработка данных (информации)
tabulate the census — занести данные по переписи (населения) в
таблицу
means of coding— средства кодирования (шифровки)
to punch the holes— пробивать отверстия
punched card — перфокарта
to perform— выполнять, производить (действие); осуществлять;
unit of data— единица информации
Keyboard terminals — терминал (вывод) с клавишным
управлением
proliferation— размножение, быстрое увеличение
Task 2. Look back in the text and answer the following question:
1. What was the very first calculating device? 2. What is the abacus? 3.
What is the modern slide rule? 4. Who gave the ideas for producing
logarithm tables? 5. How did Newton and Leibniz contribute to the
problem of calculation? 6. When did the first calculating machine
                                     - 12 -

processing. These early electromechanical data processors were called
unit record machines because each punched card contained a unit of
data.
In the mid1940s electronic computers were developed to
perform calculations for military and scientific purposes. By the end of
the 1960s commercial models of these computers were widely used for
both scientific computation and business data processing. Initially these
computers accepted their input data from punched cards. By the late
1970s punched cards had been almost universally replaced by keyboard
terminals. Since that time advances in science have led to the
proliferation of computers throughout our society, and the past is but
the prologue that gives us a glimpse of the future.

Vocabulary:

calculating device вычислительное устройство
multiple кратный
abacus счеты
slide rule логарифмическая линейка
logarithm table логарифмическая таблица
calculus  исчисление; математический анализ
general-purpose общего назначения, универсальный
to cut out the human being altogether  полностью исключить
человека
to manipulate  обрабатывать, преобразовывать; управлять
data processing обработка данных (информации)
tabulate the census  занести данные по переписи (населения) в
таблицу
means of coding средства кодирования (шифровки)
to punch the holes пробивать отверстия
punched card  перфокарта
to perform выполнять, производить (действие); осуществлять;
unit of data единица информации
Keyboard terminals  терминал (вывод) с клавишным
управлением
proliferation размножение, быстрое увеличение
Task 2. Look back in the text and answer the following question:

1. What was the very first calculating device? 2. What is the abacus? 3.
What is the modern slide rule? 4. Who gave the ideas for producing
logarithm tables? 5. How did Newton and Leibniz contribute to the
problem of calculation? 6. When did the first calculating machine