# Welcome to the computer world. Practice materials for 1st year students. Еранина Т.И - 18 стр.

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• ## Иностранный язык

18
for doing their homework and many schools now have computers for
independent learning and computer-literacy studies. In the office
personal computers may be used for word processing, bookkeeping,
storage and handling of necessary information.
Personal computers were made possible by two technical
innovations in the field of microelectronics: the integrated circuit, or IC,
which was developed in 1959 and the microprocessor that first appeared
in 1971. the IC permitted the miniaturization of computer-memory
circuits, and the microprocessor reduced the size of a computer’s CPU to
the size of a single silicon chip. Because a CPU calculates, performs
logical operations, contains operating instructions, and manages data
flows, a complete microcomputer as a separate system was designed and
developed in 1974.
In 1981, IBM Company offered its own microcomputer
model, the IBM PC that became a necessary tool for almost every
business. The PC’s use of a 16-bit microprocessor initiated the
development of faster and more powerful personal computers, and its use
of an operating system that was available to all other computer makers
led to a standardization of the industry.
In the mid – 1980s, a number of other developments were
especially important for the growth of personal computers. 0ne of these
was the introduction of a powerful 32-bit CPU capable of running
advanced operating systems at high speeds.
Another innovation was the use of conventional operating
systems, such as UNIX, OS/2 an Windows. The Apple Macintosh
computers were the first to allow the user to select icons – graphic
symbols of computer functions – from a display screen instead of typing
commands. New voice-controlled systems are now available, and users
are able to use the words and syntax of spoken language to operate their
personal computers.
Vocabulary:
Device – устройство
Intelligence – разум
Hardware – оборудование
Software – программы
Processing – обработка
Procedures – процедуры, операции
Perform – выполнять
Manner – манера, способ
Various – различные
Purpose – цель
                                18

for doing their homework and many schools now have computers for
independent learning and computer-literacy studies. In the office
personal computers may be used for word processing, bookkeeping,
storage and handling of necessary information.
Personal computers were made possible by two technical
innovations in the field of microelectronics: the integrated circuit, or IC,
which was developed in 1959 and the microprocessor that first appeared
in 1971. the IC permitted the miniaturization of computer-memory
circuits, and the microprocessor reduced the size of a computers CPU to
the size of a single silicon chip. Because a CPU calculates, performs
logical operations, contains operating instructions, and manages data
flows, a complete microcomputer as a separate system was designed and
developed in 1974.
In 1981, IBM Company offered its own microcomputer
model, the IBM PC that became a necessary tool for almost every
business. The PCs use of a 16-bit microprocessor initiated the
development of faster and more powerful personal computers, and its use
of an operating system that was available to all other computer makers
led to a standardization of the industry.
In the mid  1980s, a number of other developments were
especially important for the growth of personal computers. 0ne of these
was the introduction of a powerful 32-bit CPU capable of running
advanced operating systems at high speeds.
Another innovation was the use of conventional operating
systems, such as UNIX, OS/2 an Windows. The Apple Macintosh
computers were the first to allow the user to select icons  graphic
symbols of computer functions  from a display screen instead of typing
commands. New voice-controlled systems are now available, and users
are able to use the words and syntax of spoken language to operate their
personal computers.

Vocabulary:

Device  устройство
Intelligence  разум
Hardware  оборудование
Software  программы
Processing  обработка
Procedures  процедуры, операции
Perform  выполнять
Manner  манера, способ
Various  различные
Purpose  цель