# 18th Century Britain. Иностранный язык. Фомина И.В. - 20 стр.

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• ## Иностранный язык

20
Halfbrother, gentleman, outstanding, townhall, counterattack, spokesman,
grammarschool, statesman, lawmaking,watersupply, crosssection, overwhelming,
freeman.
Ex. 3. Read and translate the sentences, paying attention to the constructions there
was/there were and it was smb. who.
1. There were twenty four Welsh members, eighty knights of the shire for the
English countries, four university members.
2. There was no universal right to vote in the country.
3. Where there were deeply entrenched local interests, loyalties and passions,
those, who sought the seats, might have to choose between a ruinous struggle
and a compromise.
4. There were men of great distinction in the arts and sciences.
5. There was a core of landed aristocracy in the House.
6. There were great lawyers, great city merchants, as well as generals and
7. It was Bolingbroke who took a leading part in the negotiations.
8. It was the king who made peace and war, made bishops.
Ex. 4. Read and translate the text.
Many people who had the right to vote used to trade their votes. A vote might cost
from a few pounds to a few thousands. Voters were influenced by a great variety of
motives, ranging from bribery to the traditional claims of a landed family in the
neighbourhood. There was a core of landed aristocracy in the House, for the younger
members of a landed family might have a connection of long standing with a
neighbouring boroughs. Where there were deeply entrenched local interests, loyalties,
and passions, those who sought the seats might have to choose between a ruinous
struggle and a compromise. Very few seats were contested during the first half of the
18
th
century, most county members getting their seats by an understanding between
local factions.
Those who had seats in the House of Commons were expected to take an
intelligent and financial interest in the provision of local amenities, such as a town
hall, a grammar school, or a water supply. The membership of the Commons was
varied. There were men of great distinction in the arts and sciences John Dryden,
Isaac Newton, Christopher Wren, and Joseph Addison. There were great lawyers,
great city merchants, as well as generals and admirals.
The House of Commons could distinguish between men who had ability and men
who had estates. It had a wider cross-section of national activities and achievements
and a smaller proportion of professional politicians than the Commons of the present
day. It had begun in medieval times as an assembly of those who could voice the
opinion and state the needs of local areas. By the 18
th
collective personality.
                                         20
Halfbrother, gentleman, outstanding, townhall, counterattack, spokesman,
grammarschool, statesman, lawmaking,watersupply, crosssection, overwhelming,
freeman.

Ex. 3. Read and translate the sentences, paying attention to the constructions there
was/there were and it was smb. who.

1. There were twenty four Welsh members, eighty knights of the shire for the
English countries, four university members.
2. There was no universal right to vote in the country.
3. Where there were deeply entrenched local interests, loyalties and passions,
those, who sought the seats, might have to choose between a ruinous struggle
and a compromise.
4. There were men of great distinction in the arts and sciences.
5. There was a core of landed aristocracy in the House.
6. There were great lawyers, great city merchants, as well as generals and
7. It was Bolingbroke who took a leading part in the negotiations.
8. It was the king who made peace and war, made bishops.

Ex. 4. Read and translate the text.

Many people who had the right to vote used to trade their votes. A vote might cost
from a few pounds to a few thousands. Voters were influenced by a great variety of
motives, ranging from bribery to the traditional claims of a landed family in the
neighbourhood. There was a core of landed aristocracy in the House, for the younger
members of a landed family might have a connection of long standing with a
neighbouring boroughs. Where there were deeply entrenched local interests, loyalties,
and passions, those who sought the seats might have to choose between a ruinous
struggle and a compromise. Very few seats were contested during the first half of the
18th century, most county members getting their seats by an understanding between
local factions.
Those who had seats in the House of Commons were expected to take an
intelligent and financial interest in the provision of local amenities, such as a town
hall, a grammar school, or a water supply. The membership of the Commons was
varied. There were men of great distinction in the arts and sciences — John Dryden,
Isaac Newton, Christopher Wren, and Joseph Addison. There were great lawyers,
great city merchants, as well as generals and admirals.
The House of Commons could distinguish between men who had ability and men
who had estates. It had a wider cross-section of national activities and achievements
and a smaller proportion of professional politicians than the Commons of the present
day. It had begun in medieval times as an assembly of those who could voice the
opinion and state the needs of local areas. By the 18th century it had acquired a
collective personality.