Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 4 курса специальности 020700 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В. - 7 стр.

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weavers and other skilled workers from Normandy to settle in Britain. Various
other industries and crafts began to develop in old and new towns. By 1250 most
of Englands towns were established.
Many towns stood on land belonging to feudal lords. To balance the power of
local nobility, the kings gave (sold) charters of freedom to many towns, freeing
the inhabitants from feudal duties to the local lord.
The towns life, courts and economy were controlled by town merchants who
formed a wealthy and influential class.
Two new landed classes developed in the country. They were freeman farmers
who rented landlords land and bit by bit added to their holdings, and gentleman
farmers or landed gentry, that is the knights who devoted themselves to
farming.
Kings Need Money
By the late thirteenth century the king could only raise most of his income by
taxation. And taxes could be raised with the agreement of those wealthy enough
to be taxed the merchants in towns and the landed gentry and other wealthy
freemen in the country. These were the two classes of people who produced and
controlled Englands wealth.
There was an increasing necessity in a representative institution whose members
chosen by the shires and towns would link the king with these classes.
The Great Charter
In 1215, King John was forced by the powerful barons to sign Magna Carta, the
Great Charter, which promised all freemen protection from his officers and the
right to a fair and legal trial. It also contained a list of imitations to the kings
power. A committee of lords was established to make sure that John kept his
promise.
For many centuries this document6 was an important symbol of political freedom.
A Real Parliament
Edward I (1272 1307) brought together the first real parliament. In 1295 he
commanded each shire and town to send two representatives to what became
known as the Model Parliament. There the barons and the high clergy were
present together with the knights and burgesses representing the shires and
towns (or boroughs). The House of Commons as a separate chamber resulted
from the unofficial meetings of these knights and burgesses. The person chosen to
speak for these commoners in Parliament became known as the Speaker. In
the fourteenth century the House of Lords and the House of Commons became
separate chambers.
2. Read the following phrases. Find them in the text. Translate them into
Russian.
To improve the manufacture of woollen cloth; new landed classes; to increase
ones holding; to raise the royal income by taxation; those wealthy enough to be
taxed; to produce and control Englands wealth; necessity in a representative