Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 3-4 курса специальности 030401 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В - 10 стр.

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by the passing of severe Penal Laws which deprived them of all civil and religious
rights. The new conquest of Ireland was followed by fresh confiscations of land,
and henceforward the country was ruled more brutally and open than ever before
as a colony existing for the exclusive benefit of the English.
3. In Scotland the new regime was accepted without much opposition.
Protestants in Scotland welcomed the expulsion of James, and by 1692 William
IIIs sovereignty was undisputed throughout the British Isles.
4. After William of Orange and Mary had been declared king and queen,
Parliament added to the laws of the constitution. The Triennial Act, 1694, obliged
the king to summon Parliament at least every three years. The Act of Settlement,
1701, included rules which, had they not become a dead letter, would have made
government chaotic and strangled cabinet government, as the British were to know
it, in its cradle.
5. No person who had an office or place of profit under the king could serve as
a member of the House of Commons. All matters relating to the governing of the
kingdom which were the responsibility of the Privy Council were to be transacted
there, and all resolutions taken thereupon were to be signed by the individual
responsible.
6. This would have involved a subordination of the administration to the
legislature which would have made impossible development of a cabinet system
by which the servants of the king exercise his prerogatives the essential
executive powers on which the life of the state depends because they are
members of the House of Commons and are supported by a majority of it in the
implementation of a policy approved by the country, if necessary at a general
election.
7. The Septennial Act, 1715, increased the normal term of Parliaments
existence from three to seven years and made it possible for the government in
office to nurse the constituencies on which its power depended.
8. Looking back, we can see that in the eighteenth century Britain collaboration
between the kings ministers and the representatives of his people was a better