Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 3-4 курса специальности 030401 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В - 9 стр.


succeeded in 1952). Her reign is considered by many as the Golden Age of
English history, whose symbols were Sir Francis Drake and William Shakespeare.
8. The discovery of America placed England at the center of the words trading
routes, and brilliant naval commanders (especially Sir Francis Drake and Sir
Walter Raleigh) enabled England to dominate these trade routes.
9. Elizabeth and her advisers considered trade the most important foreign
policy matter, as Henry VII had done. For them Englands greatest trade rival was
also its greatest enemy. This idea remained the basis of Englands foreign policy
until the nineteenth century. A number of companies were established to trade
with various regions of the world. The Moscow Company had been developing
profitable trade with Russia. The East India Company was founded to trade with
the East Indies (Indonesia); competing with the Dutch and later with the French it
soon began to operate in India, Persia and even in Japan. The Africa Company
began selling slaves to the Spanish in America. And several others.
10. Elizabeth followed two policies. She encouraged English sailors to attack
and destroy Spanish ships bringing treasures back from America, and the treasure
was shared with the queen. She also encouraged English traders to settle abroad
and to create colonies. This second policy led directly to Britains colonial empire
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
1. William III had to do much to secure his hold, not only upon England but
upon Scotland and Ireland. In 1689 James II landed in Ireland, where he had an
army ready to hand, and was easily able to stir up a national rising of the native
Catholics against the Protestant garrison. In July 1690 William defeated James
at the battle of Boyne. This event has been celebrated since by Orangemen, as
Protestants of Northern Ireland belonging to the Orange Order call themselves.
2. In October 1691 the last Irish general surrendered at Limerick after a
brilliant but hopeless struggle. As a condition of surrender William promised
religious toleration for the Irish Catholics, a promise that was immediately broken