Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 3-4 курса специальности 030401 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В - 7 стр.


Выполните следующие задания:
Прочтите и переведите все тексты контрольного задания. Один из текстов
( по выбору) переведите письменно.
Поставьте (письменно) к каждому тексту по 7-10 вопросов , охватывающих
основное содержание текста.
Ответьте на поставленные вопросы (устно).
1. In the near east until recently, Europeans were often known as Francs, a
reference to the French and German warriors who participated in the Crusades.
These eight extraordinary missions, which took place over the course of two
centuries, marked the beginning Europes long and victorious assault on the
world. The goal of the Crusades was the liberation of Jerusalem, which had been
captured by Islamic forces in 638. Although Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in
1099 the Christian colonies they set up in the Levant proved to be fragile
kingdoms and were soon recaptured.
2. Like many other episodes in human history, the Crusades had significant
side effects. One was a heightened animosity between Christendom and Islam in
the Middle East, which eventually cut Europeans off from land routes to India and
China. The need for new avenues of trade with the Far East led to the seafaring
explorations of the Age of Discovery.
3. Another consequence was a fatal weakening of Byzantium, which never
recovered from a brutal sacking by Crusaders in 1204. Western Europe had
rediscovered some of the lost learning of ancient Greece in translations made by
Arab philosophers. A steady exodus of Hellenic scholars from the decaying
empire brought westward the more, detailed knowledge of antiquity that
eventually fueled the revival of classical learning known as the Renaissance. In the
Middle Ages scholars from all over the Europe made pilgrimages to the schools
and libraries of Cordoba and Madrid to study Arabic literature, astronomy and