Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 3-4 курса специальности 030401 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В - 8 стр.

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TEXT 2.
1. The Hundred Years War was followed by a long power struggle(1455-85)
for the English Crown between the two branches of the royal family, which Walter
Scott later called the Wars o the Roses.
2. The man who ended the war and united the two royal houses and their
supporters was Henry Tudor, duke of Richmond, who became King Henry VII
giving origin to the Tudor dynasty (1485-1603).
3. Henry avoided quarrels with neighbors and made important trade
agreements with European countries. He was careful to keep the friendship of the
merchant and lesser gentry classes who produced most of the nations wealth. Like
him they wanted peace and prosperity. He understood earlier than most people that
Englands future wealth would depend on international trade and he built a large
fleet of merchant ships. Henry VII built the foundations of a wealthy nation state
and a powerful monarchy.
4. He sent his seamen to explore the Atlantic coast of North America soon
after Columbuss great discovery. But England did not start colonizing the new
continent until the early seventeenth century when it had become strong enough.
5. In the 1530s, henry VIII, wasteful and ambitious, broke away from Rome,
and Parliament made him head of the Church of England. An English Bible was
placed in every church for people to read. After a careful survey of Church
property Henry VIII closed 560 monasteries and took over their land and wealth.
He sold much of their lands to the rising classes of landowners and merchants to
boost his popularity with them. England became politically a Protestant country,
even though the religion was in fact still Catholic. Nevertheless, Henry made the
Church in England truly English.
6. It was Henrys creation of the Royal Navy that enabled England to realize
her imperialistic ambitions under Elizabeth. He had spent a lot of money on
warships and guns, making English guns the best in Europe.
7. Elizabeth I(1558-1603) was the first of three long-reigning queens in British
history (the other two are Queen Victoria, 1837-1901, and Queen Elizabeth II ,