Banks and Money, Automobiles and Roads, Industry in Africa, Two Courses of Action. Агафонова И.Г. - 12 стр.

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nia. There are nine countries in the top quartile: Algeria, the Democratic Republic of
the Congo, the Ivory Coast, Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria, Rhodesia, Tunisia, and the
UAR. The variation is between 115 and 53. There are nine countries in the lowest
quartile: Burundi, Gabon, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Somalia, Togo, and Up-
per Volta, varying from 13 to 3.
Nearly all African countries, whatever their size or level of development, have
installed or are in the process of installing the following industries: flour milling, beer
and beverages, clothing, boots and shoes, sawn wood and joinery, including wooden
furniture, plastic manufactures, soap, liquid air, paints, metal products for construc-
tion, household utensils, repair of motor vehicles, and, where appropriate, repair of
railway equipment or small ships. These are typical import substitution industries,
largely consumer goods and to a limited extent simple intermediate goods.
The range of food industries installed is considerably greater from the point of
view of Africa as a whole, and the specific industries depend on the agricultural re-
sources of the country in question, e.g. sugar, edible oils, processed meat, dairy prod-
ucts, tinned fruit and fruit juices, canned vegetables, and processed rice. The devel-
opment of forest industries in certain countries is obviously also a function of forest
resources and has led, therefore, to production in some of them of veneers and ply-
wood, pulp and paper, and packaging. The same by and large is true of textiles and
cement.
III. Answer the following questions.
1. What indicators concerning the average income and GDP per head for Africa can
you mention? Could you say whether they have changed?
2. Are consumer goods or means of production most developed in Africa? Explain
your point of view.
3. What industrial classification does the author use? Speak on the level of African
development now.
IV. Check up the pronunciation of unfamiliar words in a dictionary and read Text
2 aloud.