Английский язык. Учебное пособие. Бабушкин А.П - 10 стр.

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11
UNIT III
Judicial Administration
Text A
Judicial administration and court reform are closely related to organization and
jurisdiction. Administration and reform are concerned with the day-to-day work of
the courts and how it can be improved. However, the judicial process is not like
mathematics or engineering; there are various ways that courts can be managed and
major differences on what the goals of the judicial process ought to be. People do not
agree on a single definition of court improvement.
Administration of the Courts
Judicial administration includes a wide range of activities involving the
operations of courts. Some definitions equate judicial administration with
anything
having to do with the judicial process. One writer states, for example, that judicial
administration involves “The direction of and influences of those who are expected to
contribute
to just and efficient case processing…
This implies too that anything that
affects justice, however one chooses to define that, also concerns judicial
administration. Most definitions of judicial administration also are very
reformist
in
that they are concerned mostly with improving the quality of court procedures and
decisions. One assumption, for example, is that justice can be improved if we
somehow get better judges to run the courts. Another is that speedy justice is better
justice and court administrators constantly are searching for new ways to reduce
delay in processing cases.
Judicial administration involves two broad areas; the management of court
organization and personnel and the processing of litigation. Court management
covers a number of specific areas such as the organization and jurisdiction of courts;
the selection and tenure of judges and the hiring, training, and supervision of all other
court workers; expenditures and budgeting for personnel and court operations; and
routine clerical tasks. Processing of litigation usually concerns speed and cost and
establishing uniform rules of court operations to reduce confusion and inequality in
how cases are treated. Improved jury management and transferring judges to speed up
trials also are aspects of organizing litigation.
The watchwords in judicial administration in the United States have been
decentralization and local control,
but there is much current disagreement among
those who feel that locally managed justice is best and others who believe that equal
and efficient justice is produced by well organized and centrally managed court
systems. Competition for control over court operations is the politics of judicial
administration.
Administration in the Federal Courts
Until 1934, the federal courts were managed and supervised by the U.S. Justice
Department, which is an agency of the executive branch. Along with its