Английский язык. Учебное пособие. Бабушкин А.П - 12 стр.

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conference, but it also draws lower court judges into policymaking and makes them
partly responsible for the success or failure of federal judicial administration.
Including many district and circuit judges and lawyers in national judicial
administration satisfies the demands for exerting local influence in administrative
policymaking, but it also limits the authority of the conference in administration.
Proponents of strong, centralized judicial administration have always maintained that
the Judicial Conference and its many feeder committees is too loosely organized to
accomplish any real direction and unity in the federal court system. The conference
also lacks the power to enforce its policy in the federal courts. This lack of
centralized leadership remains an issue today.
The
Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts is
the national agency that
manages the day-to-day affairs of the federal courts. But unlike the powerful court
administrator proposed in the Roosevelt plan, the head of the administrative office is
responsible to the Judicial Conference. He does
not
make policy or obtain compliance
with conference policy in the federal system. The court administrator fulfills the
expectations of most judges that the administrator be on tap’ but not “on top.” The
office is the source of some ideas for the Judicial Conference, and it gathers statistical
information on the work of the courts, supervises clerical and secretarial personnel,
probation officers, and others, prepares the budget along the lines established by the
Judicial Conference and serves as the official representative of the Judicial
Conference in Congress. The office
suggests
changes, but does not provide
leadership. Judges retain the prerogative of making administrative decisions for the
courts.
Despite occasional efforts to develop a congressional lobbying effort, the
Administrative Office generally has not been particularly powerful in obtaining
money for the courts or congressional support for court proposals. Both former Chief
Justice Earl Warren and Chief Justice Warren Burger have felt that the federal courts
are not very important to Congress and, since the courts are outside the mainstream of
the popular political process, they are unable to bargain with Congress to obtain
adequate budgets and administrative changes.
The federal courts have another national agency,
the Federal Judicial Center,
which was created by Congress in 1967. It conducts research on court operations and
procedures and produces educational programs for personnel in the federal judicial
system. It is managed by a director appointed by the Chief Justice. The Director of
the Administrative Office and five judges elected by the Judicial Conference serve
with the Chief Justice as an advisory board of directors. The Federal Judicial Center
has no direct supervisory role, but provides information to other sectors of the
federal court system and to any others interested in research and management of the
federal courts.
In addition to the Judicial Conference, which makes policy for all the federal
courts,
each circuit
has its own regional
Judicial Council
and
Judicial Conference
.
The conference is composed of district and appeals court judges and lawyers and
meets once each year to discuss issues and problems of interest.