Английский язык. Учебное пособие. Бабушкин А.П - 11 стр.


responsibilities in national law enforcement and litigation on behalf of the U.S.
Government, the Justice Department supervised individual court clerks in each
federal court. Little direct supervision or control was possible from Washington,
however, since the clerks were appointed by federal judges, not the attorney general,
and were more likely to listen to the directions and wishes of local judges than to
uniform standards created by the Justice Department. Judges and clerks also resented
control by the executive branch and generally resisted attempts to centralize judicial
administration in Washington. Besides control of judicial housekeeping, the Justice
Department had the power to transfer judges and prosecutors to different judicial
districts to help out in courts with especially heavy caseloads. This function may
seem like a mere administrative detail, but judges and U.S. senators often believed
the Justice Department made transfers in order to line up judges to decide particular
cases who were sympathetic to the government. Judges generally were dissatisfied
with the Justice Department, but lawyers and other judges also felt that the federal
district courts were too inefficient, and unresponsive to national standards.
The great depression of the 1930s led to major changes in federal judicial
administration. The federal courts generally lost prestige and political support after
much of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation was declared
unconstitutional by the conservative Supreme Court. A very popular leader President
Roosevelt launched a plan to increase the membership or “pack” the Court with
additional judges whom he would appoint and who, presumably, would rule in
support of new Democratic party policy.
Text B
The main national decision-making organization is
the Judicial Conference of
the United States,
which includes the Chief Justice as the presiding member, the chief
judges of each of the judicial circuits, plus one district judge from each circuit. The
conference meets twice each year for about two days to discuss various issues
relating to internal administration and to make recommendations to the Chief Justice
for necessary changes. It deals with a variety of topics including developing rules of
judicial procedure, making policy on the transfer of judges within circuits, and
making recommendations for congressional legislation required for creating new
judgeships, increasing judicial salaries, budgets for court operations, etc. The
conference also has the power to supervise the work
of the Administrative Office of
the United Stales Courts,
which manages the day-to-day operations of the federal
A 2-day conference held twice each year could not accomplish very much. Therefore,
prior to conference meetings, as many as twenty-five committees, composed of
various judges and lawyers from the twelve circuits, are appointed by the Chief
Justice to analyze and make recommendations on particular issues that the conference
will consider. Positions on the committees provide judges and lawyers with prestige
as well as influence on the conference before it makes policy for the entire federal
court system. Participation by so many people adds legitimacy to the work of the