# Фрагменты когнитивной психологии. Бабушкин А.П. - 12 стр.

Составители:

Рубрика:

• ## Иностранный язык

12
2. Find the meaning of the following words in a dictionary:
1. superior (a)
2. enhance (v)
3. chase (v)
4. temptation (n)
5. inference (n)
6. imagine (v)
7. failure (n)
8. share (v)
9. conscious (a)
10. experience (n)
11. wedding (n)
12. event (n)
13. property (n)
3. Fill the blanks with the appropriate words:
1) The rank of a major in the army is … to the rank of a captain. 2) The two
students … one room in the hostel. 3) If you are … of something you notice and
realize what is happening; this term is also used to describe thoughts and memories that
come into your mind. 4) “ … “ means to improve value, quality or attractiveness of
something. 5) Try to … that you are on the Moon. 6) He is a very good specialist, he
has gathered much of … while working abroad. 7) The boy had a great to eat the
cake. 8) … is a triumph of love.
4. Read and translate the text:
Perception-Based and Meaning-Based Knowledge Representation
Paivio has long championed the dual-code theory that there are separate
representations for verbal and visual information. Much of his evidence came from
research on human memory where it is often found that memory for pictorial material is
superior to memory for verbal material. Researchers have also found that memory for
verbal material is greatly chanced if one can develop visual images corresponding to the
material. For instance, subjects given the sentence “The dog chased the bike” will better
remember the sentence if they develop a corresponding image of the sentence.
It has been proved that verbal and visual information are processed by different
parts of the brain in different ways. Although issues of brain localization are important,
they are not the principal reason why psychologists are concerned with knowledge
representation. The principal reason for the interest in knowledge representation is that
the way in which information is represented can affect the way it is processed. There is
a strong temptation to use such information about the way representations are processed
to make inferences about the way they are actually encoded in the brain. For instance, it
is tempting to take a very literal interpretation of the way they are encoded. One might
imagine that there are pictures in the head which some internal being in the brain looks
at or that there is speech in the head which the same internal being listens to. The
mythical internal being in the brain that sees and hears is infamous in cognitive
psychology, use of such a concept is recognized as a failure of scientific explanation.
More than that – mental images are not actual images; they are not drawn on any
tangible canvas or viewed by actual eyes. Generally speaking, it is difficult to
                                             12

2. Find the meaning of the following words in a dictionary:

1.   superior (a)           6.    imagine (v)            10. experience (n)
2.   enhance (v)            7.    failure (n)            11. wedding (n)
3.   chase (v)              8.    share (v)              12. event (n)
4.   temptation (n)         9.    conscious (a)          13. property (n)
5.   inference (n)

3. Fill the blanks with the appropriate words:

1) The rank of a major in the army is … to the rank of a captain. 2) The two
students … one room in the hostel. 3) If you are … of something you notice and
realize what is happening; this term is also used to describe thoughts and memories that
come into your mind. 4) “ … “ means to improve value, quality or attractiveness of
something. 5) Try to … that you are on the Moon. 6) He is a very good specialist, he
has gathered much of … while working abroad. 7) The boy had a great … to eat the
cake. 8) … is a triumph of love.

4. Read and translate the text:

Perception-Based and Meaning-Based Knowledge Representation

Paivio has long championed the dual-code theory that there are separate
representations for verbal and visual information. Much of his evidence came from
research on human memory where it is often found that memory for pictorial material is
superior to memory for verbal material. Researchers have also found that memory for
verbal material is greatly chanced if one can develop visual images corresponding to the
material. For instance, subjects given the sentence “The dog chased the bike” will better
remember the sentence if they develop a corresponding image of the sentence.
It has been proved that verbal and visual information are processed by different
parts of the brain in different ways. Although issues of brain localization are important,
they are not the principal reason why psychologists are concerned with knowledge
representation. The principal reason for the interest in knowledge representation is that
the way in which information is represented can affect the way it is processed. There is
a strong temptation to use such information about the way representations are processed
to make inferences about the way they are actually encoded in the brain. For instance, it
is tempting to take a very literal interpretation of the way they are encoded. One might
imagine that there are pictures in the head which some internal being in the brain looks
at or that there is speech in the head which the same internal being listens to. The
mythical internal being in the brain that sees and hears is infamous in cognitive
psychology, use of such a concept is recognized as a failure of scientific explanation.
More than that – mental images are not actual images; they are not drawn on any
tangible canvas or viewed by actual eyes. Generally speaking, it is difficult to