# Фрагменты когнитивной психологии. Бабушкин А.П. - 13 стр.

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13
conceptualize what an image is. Difficulties in studying imagery were in large part
responsible for the Behaviorists’ swing away from studying mental activity of any sort.
Visual images share many properties with the products of visual perception. Nowadays
mental images are better explained and understood in the terms of computational
theories. Computational theories of imagery attempt to account for how information is
stored and processed when one uses imagery; such theories focus on the brain activities
involved in imagery rather than on the conscious experience of imagery itself.
If perception-based knowledge representation is a knowledge representation that
attempts to preserve much of the structure of a perceptual experience, than meaning
representation attempts to abstract out some significant aspects of an experience.
Recall a wedding you attended a while ago. Presumably, you can remember who
married whom, probably where the wedding was, many of the people at the wedding,
and some of the things that happened. However, you would probably be hard pressed to
say exactly what all the participants wore and exactly what was said although you
probably registered all of these details. Thus we extract what is significant about an
event and discard many of the unimportant events. A fair amount of research in
cognitive psychology has been devoted to documenting the importance of such
meaning-based memories and establishing that they are different from perception-based
memories. There are two types of meaning-based representations: propositional
structures that encode the significant information about a particular event (such as who
married whom in the wedding) and schemas that represent categories of events and
objects in terms of their typical properties (such as what typically happens at a
wedding).
5. Answer the following questions to the text:
1) Who was the father of the dual-code theory?
2) What does the dual-code theory state?
3) Is memory for verbal material superior to memory for pictorial material?
4) In what way can verbal material be greatly enhanced?
5) Are verbal and visual information processed by different parts of the brain?
6) What is a naive interpretation of the way representations are produced?
7) Do mental images look like actual images?
8) Visual images share many properties with the products of visual perception, don’t
they?
9) What is perception-based knowledge representation?
10) In what way does meaning-based knowledge representation differ from
perception-based knowledge representation?
6. Formulate your understanding of perception-based and meaning-based knowledge
representations.
                                          13
conceptualize what an image is. Difficulties in studying imagery were in large part
responsible for the Behaviorists’ swing away from studying mental activity of any sort.
Visual images share many properties with the products of visual perception. Nowadays
mental images are better explained and understood in the terms of computational
theories. Computational theories of imagery attempt to account for how information is
stored and processed when one uses imagery; such theories focus on the brain activities
involved in imagery rather than on the conscious experience of imagery itself.
If perception-based knowledge representation is a knowledge representation that
attempts to preserve much of the structure of a perceptual experience, than meaning
representation attempts to abstract out some significant aspects of an experience.
Recall a wedding you attended a while ago. Presumably, you can remember who
married whom, probably where the wedding was, many of the people at the wedding,
and some of the things that happened. However, you would probably be hard pressed to
say exactly what all the participants wore and exactly what was said although you
probably registered all of these details. Thus we extract what is significant about an
event and discard many of the unimportant events. A fair amount of research in
cognitive psychology has been devoted to documenting the importance of such
meaning-based memories and establishing that they are different from perception-based
memories. There are two types of meaning-based representations: propositional
structures that encode the significant information about a particular event (such as who
married whom in the wedding) and schemas that represent categories of events and
objects in terms of their typical properties (such as what typically happens at a
wedding).

5. Answer the following questions to the text:

1) Who was the father of the dual-code theory?
2) What does the dual-code theory state?
3) Is memory for verbal material superior to memory for pictorial material?
4) In what way can verbal material be greatly enhanced?
5) Are verbal and visual information processed by different parts of the brain?
6) What is a naive interpretation of the way representations are produced?
7) Do mental images look like actual images?
8) Visual images share many properties with the products of visual perception, don’t
they?
9) What is perception-based knowledge representation?
10) In what way does meaning-based knowledge representation differ from
perception-based knowledge representation?

6. Formulate your understanding of perception-based and meaning-based knowledge
representations.