# Theoretical English Grammar. Part 2. Syntax. Бочарова М.В. - 17 стр.

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• ## Иностранный язык

= a specific combination of obligatory sentence constituents, the number and
type of which vary from pattern to pattern.
o The main predicating word, which is most often a verb (in a simple verbal
predicate) but can also be a noun or adjective (as part of a nominal predicate),
governs the sentence pattern, i.e. valency of the predicating word controls the
number, type and semantics of obligatory sentence constituents which make up a
sentence/ clause.
o Types of verb valency:
– intransitive verbs (with no obligatory element following),
– monotransitive verbs (with a single direct object),
– ditransitive verbs (with an indirect object and a direct object),
– complex transitive verbs (followed by a direct object and either 1) an object
complement or 2) an obligatory adverbial),
– copular verbs (followed by either (1) a subject complement or (2) an obliga-
o There are 6 basic patterns of the English sentence which are recognized by
most grammarians:
– There V S
(There – Copular Verb (typically be) – Subject), which describes the situation of
existence / presence;
– S V Cs
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= a specific combination of obligatory sentence constituents, the number and
type of which vary from pattern to pattern.

o The main predicating word, which is most often a verb (in a simple verbal
predicate) but can also be a noun or adjective (as part of a nominal predicate),
governs the sentence pattern, i.e. valency of the predicating word controls the
number, type and semantics of obligatory sentence constituents which make up a
sentence/ clause.

o Types of verb valency:
– intransitive verbs (with no obligatory element following),
– monotransitive verbs (with a single direct object),
– ditransitive verbs (with an indirect object and a direct object),
– complex transitive verbs (followed by a direct object and either 1) an object
complement or 2) an obligatory adverbial),
– copular verbs (followed by either (1) a subject complement or (2) an obliga-

o There are 6 basic patterns of the English sentence which are recognized by
most grammarians:

– There V S
(There – Copular Verb (typically be) – Subject), which describes the situation of
existence / presence;

– S V Cs

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