# Theoretical phonetics. Study guide for second year students. Борискина О.О - 28 стр.

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28
In English there are two principal ways of linking two adjacent speech
sounds: I. Merging of stages. II. Interpenetration of stages. The type of junction
depends on the _______ of the sounds that are joined together. As all English
sounds come under the classification of consonants and vowels we may speak of
joining:
(a) _____________________________ as in the word [mi:] me;
(b) ______________________________as in the word [
ɔ
n] on;
(c) ______________________________as in the word [bl
ɔ
u] blow:
(d) _____________________________ as in the word [ri΄æliti] reality.
When sounds ________ in actual speech / discourse they undergo
__________. The modifications are observed both ______________ and
____________________. There exist several types of __________, some of
which are common to all or many languages, while others are characteristic of
individual languages. An English learner should be familiar with the following
types of sound modifications:________________________________________.
Nonnative English speech often sounds to native speakers as very abrupt,
“choppy” or aggressive. The ability to speak English “smoothly” entails the use
(or liaison), which is the connecting of the final sound of one word or
syllable to the initial sound of the next.
Study the following basic environments in which linking regularly
occurs and formulate the rules governing the type of phonetic phenomenon.
Contribute to the lists of phrases.
Linking Consonant to Vowel
1. Send it
, camp out, cost a lot, left arm, wept over, pushed up, hold on,
find out
Example: Send it
Send it sounds like sen-dit. Rule1: When a word ends in two consonants and the
next begins with a vowel, the final consonant sounds like the initial consonant of
the following word. This phenomenon is sometimes referred to as
resyllabification.
Is [t] aspirated in resyllabification?
2. Push up, shop it , come in, take off, let us, did you? is it? keep up,
black a
nd grey.
Rule 2: ______________________________________________________
Think of verb ending to follow the linking patterns in the following phrases.
__________ it in. __________ at me.
__________ it down. __________ out.
__________ up. __________ on it.
                                         28
In English there are two principal ways of linking two adjacent speech
sounds: I. Merging of stages. II. Interpenetration of stages. The type of junction
depends on the _______ of the sounds that are joined together. As all English
sounds come under the classification of consonants and vowels we may speak of
joining:
(a) _____________________________ as in the word [mi:] me;
(b) ______________________________as in the word [ɔn] on;
(c) ______________________________as in the word [blɔu] blow:
(d) _____________________________ as in the word [ri΄æliti] reality.
When sounds ________ in actual speech / discourse they undergo
__________. The modifications are observed both ______________ and
____________________. There exist several types of __________, some of
which are common to all or many languages, while others are characteristic of
individual languages. An English learner should be familiar with the following
types of sound modifications:________________________________________.

Nonnative English speech often sounds to native speakers as very abrupt,
choppy or aggressive. The ability to speak English smoothly entails the use
of linking (or liaison), which is the connecting of the final sound of one word or
syllable to the initial sound of the next.

Task 2. Study the following basic environments in which linking regularly
occurs and formulate the rules governing the type of phonetic phenomenon.
Contribute to the lists of phrases.
Linking Consonant to Vowel
1. Send it, camp out, cost a lot, left arm, wept over, pushed up, hold on,
Example: Send it
Send it sounds like sen-dit. Rule1: When a word ends in two consonants and the
next begins with a vowel, the final consonant sounds like the initial consonant of
the following word. This phenomenon is sometimes referred to as
resyllabification.
Is [t] aspirated in resyllabification?
2. Push up, shop it , come in, take off, let us, did you? is it? keep up,
black and grey.
Rule 2: ______________________________________________________
Think of verb ending to follow the linking patterns in the following phrases.
__________ it in.             __________ at me.
__________ it down.            __________ out.
__________ up.                __________ on it.