Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 4 курса специальности 020700 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В. - 10 стр.

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10
ЧАСТЬ II
TEXTS TO READ AND TRANSLATE
Read and translate the story.
Pompey was one of the greatest Roman soldiers, a talented state man and a
diplomat. In the 60s of the 1
st
century B.C., he played a leading role in the
political life of Rome. While the Romans were suffering under the rule of Sulta,
he was away in Africa, defeating the enemies of Rome. Six years later Pompey
suppressed an uprising of gladiators.
Gladiators were people who were given arms and made to fight against each other
in the arena for the amusement of the spectators. In later years they were forced to
fight for their lives against wild animals. Many of the gladiators were Gauls and
barbarians. There were schools in Rome where they were trained.
One day a number of men ran from one of the schools and encamped on Mount
Vesuvius. Here they were joined by other gladiators and slaves and became a great
force. They easily defeated the Toman army which was sent by the Senate to fight
against them. It was Pompey who finally put down the revolt: by his order tens of
thousands of slaves were captured and put to death.
After his victorious campaigns in the East, which led to complete Roman
domination over Asia Minor, he returned to Rome and formed the first triumvirate
together with Caesar and Crassus. But he had never expected that Caesar would
soon become his enemy and defeat him.
Read, translate, entitle the text, and get its main idea.
For the phenomenon as complex as democracy, its first appearance is remarkably
easy to pinpoint: the city-state of Athens in the fifth century B.C. Periclean
Athens, named for its most celebrated leader, inspired generations of later political
theorists and statesmen. Yet many aspects of Athenian democracy appear strange
and unfamiliar to modern eyes,
The central political institution in Athens of the sixth and fifth century B.C. was
the assembly, usually composed of 5,000 to 6,000 members, and open to all adult
male citizens. (Women, slaves and foreigners were excluded). By simple majority
vote, the Assembly could decide virtually any domestic issue without any legal
restrictions. Trials were conducted by juries of 501 citizens who also decided guilt
or innocence majority vote.
Perhaps most remarkably, the leaders of the Assembly were not elected, but
chosen by lot, since Athenians believed that any citizen was capable of holding
public office. Not that there were many such offices to fill:
Generals were elected for one-year terms, but otherwise Periclean Athens lacked
any recognizable executive institutions such as president, prime minister, Cabinet
or permanent civil service. The weight of decision-making fell almost exclusively