Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 4 курса специальности 020700 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В. - 11 стр.



upon the citizen-members of the Assembly a burden of public service that most
people today would find unacceptable.
Without constitutional limits, the Athens of Pericles was prone to factionalism and
manipulation by shrewd or eloquent orators. It was democratic Athens, after all,
which condemned to death the philosopher Socrates thereby earning the undying
enmity of Socrates most celebrated pupil and fervent antidemocratic, Plato.
Despite its enemies and weaknesses, Athenian democracy was no fragile flower. It
endured for approximately 200 years surviving even defeat in the Peloponnesian
War in 404 B/C/ at the hands of its archrival, Sparta.
Retell the following
More than seven hundred years ago Celts came to Britain from Europe. They
mixed in with the people who were already there. All who lived in Britain were
called Britons. They divided into groups called tribes. Each tribe had its king or
queen. The Romans attacked Britain in 55BC. Consul Julius Caesar had brought
the army of 10,000 men. The Britons fought desperately, but they were much
weaker than the well trained Romans, and soon fled. After the victory Julius
Caesar soon left Britain. The real invasion took place only in AD 43, when the
Roman Emperor, Claudius decided to make Britain part of the Roman Empire. An
Army of 40,000 Roman soldiers landed in Britain (Kent).
Britain became part of a huge Roman Empire, which stretched frojm what is
now the north of England to the Red Sea. Many Britons had to accept the Roman
way of life, though some of them tried to resist the enemies. The fighting
continued for almost twenty years after the Roman invasion. The Romans won
many victories, and it was clear that nothing could stop them.
But in AD 60, the Iceni tribe led by their queen, Boadicea, revolted.
In 383 the Roman legions began to leave Britain to fight in Gaul(France)
against the Barbarian tribes who were invading the Roman Empire. By 407 there
were not enough Roman soldiers to defend Britons from Picts and Scots, fierce
tribes from the North.
The British chiefs asked Anglo-Saxon soldiers to come from Germany to help
Anglo-Saxons were strong and well trained, they defeated Picts and Scots, but
when afterwards Britons asked them to leave they refused to do it and stayed.
After about one hundred and fifty years of fighting Britons had either been
forced to Wales or had become slaves.
Anglo-Saxons founded a lot of kingdoms: Kent, Essex, Wessex, Merica,
In 789 more than three hundred years after the Anglo9-Saxons had settled in
Britain, the Vikings began to attack the British Isles. They came from Norway,