Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 4 курса специальности 020700 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В. - 12 стр.



Sweden, and Denmark. The winters there were long and cold and the soil was
poor, so Britain was a rich prize for them. They made a big army. The Anglo-
Saxon kingdoms couldnt resist the Vikings, and soon only the kingdom of
Wessex remained free of them the King of Wessex was Alfred the Great.
The Danish kings ruled in Britain for about 24 years. The last of them, Edward
the Confessor, died without a son to follow him. 15 years before his death he had
promised the English Crown to the Duke of Normandy, William, who was his
cousin. But the British nobility supported Harold, Earl of Wessex. Harold was the
most powerful Anglo Saxon earl of England and in 1066 he was crowned in
York. William, feeling cheated, gathered an army to invade England. On the 14
October, 1066 the Normans won a victory and started the last invasion in the
History of Britain.
How have Americans thought of citizenship?
From its beginnings, America was strongly influenced by the ideals of classical
republicanism. The early American colonies of the seventeenth century were
political communities in which civic virtue could be exercised. Many of these
colonies were called commonwealths, a word that meant something like a
republic, that is, self-governing communities of equals whose members were
expected to help serve the good of all. In the Mayflower Compact, the Pilgrims
declared their intent to covenant and combine themselves together into a civil
body politic .
The American Founders admired the civic virtue of the ancients and the
classical models of republican government. They also were influenced by the
natural rights philosophy of John Locke. The natural rights philosophy conflicted
in several important ways with the ideals of classical republicanism. Instead of the
common good, it stressed the importance of individual rights and self-interest.
Society and government, according to Locke, were established to protect the rights
of the individual. Human communities did not exist for their own sake, but rather
to protect the individuals belonging to them, each of whom is free to pursue his or
her own interest as it does not interfere with the interests of others.
The Founders were influenced by both these theories of government. They had
to compromise in adapting intellectual inheritance to the conditions in America.
They established a limited government of checks and balances that allowed civic
virtue to flourish, but also could prevent abuses of self-interest when it did not.
The Founders realized that the classical republicanism of the ancient city states
could not be easily adapted to a country as large and diverse as America. They