Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 4 курса специальности 020700 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В. - 13 стр.



also recognized that republican self-government required a greater measure of
civic virtue than did other forms of how was civic virtue to be promoted in this
new experiment in republican self-government?
In general, the Founders looked to two solutions: religion and education. The
Founders themselves had different religious beliefs. Many were wary of the
dangers that religious orthodoxy posed to individual freedom. At the same time,
however, they acknowledged the value of organized religion in promoting virtue.
Virtuous behavior, which enabled people to control their passions, would produce
upright, responsible citizens.
The second solution that the Founders recognized was the importance of
education to good citizenship. For the American experiment in republican self-
government to succeed, each of its citizens had to be schooled in the ideals and
principles upon which that experiment was based. Formal schooling, together with
a free press, became a priority in the early years of the new republic. Public or
common schools developed rapidly to prepare Americans not only as workers in
a growing economy, but also as citizens committed to the principles of self-
government. As nineteenth-century American educator Horace Mann observed,
schoolhouses are the republican line of fortifications.
How did Toqueville connect good citizenship with self-interest in the
American democracy?
Alexis de Tocqueville was a young French aristocrat who visited the United
States in the 1830s, at a time when the spirit of Jacksonian democracy was helping
top bring about greater equality and more widespread participation in the nations
political life. He was curious about and impressed by Americas experiment in
democracy and how well it worked. After finishing his tour of the United States he
recorded his impressions in a very influential book, Democracy in America.
Tocqueville found much both to admire and to criticize as he traveled the
country. Though impressed by the equality of opportunity in the American
democracy, he wondered how a society so devoted to materialism and the pursuit
of individual self-interest could produce the civic spirit needed for self-
He believed the answer was to be found in the qualities he admired in
American democracy: traditions of local self-government and habits of free
The New England townships were tiny models of classical republicanism,
where the habits of citizenship were developed. Tocqueville observed that a
citizen of one of these American towns
Takes part in every affair of the place; he
practices the act of government in the small
sphere within his reach and collects clear
practical notions on the nature of his duties and