Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 1-2 курса заочного отделения исторического факультета. Мартемьянова Н.В - 30 стр.


of these, there were only six or seven with
enough strength to take care of the rest.
These generous people were very brave and helpful.
7 One could say the same things about those who died helping the others. It is clear
that they have found their reward now with God in Heaven.
1. Freedom to learn, to think, to speak, and to publish are among the basic elements
of a democratic way of life. In the seventeenth century, these freedoms were restricted
throughout most of Europe. Many of the colonial leaders brought negative thoughts
about these freedoms along with them to the New World. From the earliest days , they
had misgivings about the growing spirit of independence among the settlers.
2. These leaders believed that it was dangerous to educate men and women or even
to allow them to read freely. In fact such leader, William Berkel governor of Virginia,
went so far as to boast that while he was governor of Virginia there were neither free
schools, nor printing presses in his colony. On the other hand, many colonists held an
opposing view.
3. They believed that people should be free to learn, to think and to express their
opinions. They also believed that printers should be free to print and distribute their
own thoughts and the thoughts of others.
4.One of these colonists was John Peter Zenger. Zengers New York Weekly
Journal, begun in 1733, spoke out in opposition to the Kings government. Then in the
autumn of 1734, Zenger was arrested for printing criticism of the governor . Under the
British Law, this made him guilty of criminal libel, even if the criticism was true.
5. Zengers arrest excited intense interest throughout the colonies. Fortunately,
Andrew Hamilton, one of the ablest lawyers in America, agreed to defend him.
Hamilton argued with force and passion. He argued that the charges printed by Zenger
were true; therefore, they were not libelous. He asserted that Zenger had been fighting
for the right to speak and wire the truth. In short, he had been fighting for liberty itself.
6. The jury returned a verdict of not guilty and John Peter Zenger, editor and
publisher walked out of the courtroom a free man. This landmark decision helped
establish in America the principle of freedom of the press.
The first real civilization was brought to Britain by the Iberians in the third
millenium BC. The Iberians were skilled in the use of copper and gold; they made
copper daggers and axes, traded in gold and copper ornaments. In the second
millenium they started using bronze. The Iberians were farmers who bred cattle and
probably tamed horses.
Towards the Christian era, there was an Iron Age Celtic culture throughout the
British Isles. The Celts had been arriving from Europe from the eighth century BC
onwards. The Celts began to control all the lowland areas of Britain and, with new
waves of settlers coming one after another, gradually spread all over Britain and the
other islands.