Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 1-2 курса заочного отделения исторического факультета. Мартемьянова Н.В - 31 стр.


It seems that the Celts mixed with the Iberian people who were already there. It
is also possible that they drove many of the older inhabitants westwards into Wales,
Ireland and Scotland where they were eventually assimilated.
The Celtic tribes continued the same kind of agriculture as the Bronze Age people
before them. But the use of iron technology and more advanced ploughing methods
made them highly successful farmers, the Celts used ox-drawn wheeled ploughs and
this meant that richer, heavier land could be farmed. Under the Celts Britain became
an important food producer. It now exported corn and animals, as well as hunting
dogs and slaves, to the European mainland.
The two main trade outlets eastwards to Europe were the settlements along the
Thames river in the south and on the Firth of Forth in the north. It is no accident the
present-day capitals of England and Scotland stand on or near these two ancient
trade centres. For money the Celts used iron bars, until they began to copy the
Roman coins they saw used in Gaul(France).
According to the Romans, the Celts men wore shirts and breeches (short trousers)
and striped or checked cloaks fastened by a pin. It is possible that the Scottish dress
and tartan developed from this cloak.
Unlike the Germanic invasions, the Norman invasion was small-scale. There was
no such things as a Norman area of settlement. Instead, the Norman Nobles were
given the ownership of land and of the people living on it.
William saw England as an extension of his French domains. He had all land
divided into manors. Most manors contained a village. Great nobles, or barons, were
given several manors in return for a promise to serve him in war. They also had to
give him part of the produce of the land. The barons gave some of their manors t
knights (lesser nobles), who paid them for the land in the same way. That was the
strict feudal system imposed by William: barons were directly responsible to the
king, knights were responsible to a baron.
Under the barons and knights were the peasantry, who were often little better
than slaves. Over three quarters of the country people were serfs who were not free
to leave their lords service or his land without permission.
William kept the Anglo-Saxon system of sheriffs, and used these as a balance to
local nobles. He kept a fifth of the farmland to himself. As a result, England unlike
France, had only one powerful family.
Most of the Norman nobles had land on both sides of the English Channel, in
England and in Normandy.
A very small number of Saxon lords kept their lands. All the others lost
everything. Many of them fled to lowland Scotland. After each English rebellion
there was more land to give away. Over 4,000 English landlords were replaced by
200 Norman ones. By 1086, only two of the greater landlords and only two bishops
were English.
In 1086, Williams officials surveyed much of England to record the ownership,
size and value of each manor