Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 3-4 курса специальности 030401 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В - 19 стр.

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The Great Charter
In 1215, King John was forced by the powerful barons to sign Magna Carta, the
Great Charter, which promised all freemen protection from his officers and the
right to a fair and legal trial. It also contained a list of imitations to the kings
power. A committee of lords was established to make sure that John kept his
promise.
For many centuries this document6 was an important symbol of political freedom.
A Real Parliament
Edward I (1272 1307) brought together the first real parliament. In 1295 he
commanded each shire and town to send two representatives to what became
known as the Model Parliament. There the barons and the high clergy were
present together with the knights and burgesses representing the shires and
towns (or boroughs). The House of Commons as a separate chamber resulted
from the unofficial meetings of these knights and burgesses. The person chosen to
speak for these commoners in Parliament became known as the Speaker. In
the fourteenth century the House of Lords and the House of Commons became
separate chambers.
2. Read the following phrases. Find them in the text. Translate them into
Russian.
To improve the manufacture of woollen cloth; new landed classes; to increase
ones holding; to raise the royal income by taxation; those wealthy enough to be
taxed; to produce and control Englands wealth; necessity in a representative
institution; forced to sign the Charter; the right to a fair and legal trial; the origins
of Parliament; to make political decisions.
3. Comprehension check. Answer the following questions.
1. What factor caused the revival of old towns and the building of new ones in
the Middle Ages?
2. What class of people controlled the growing industries?
3. What new classes developed in the country?
4. How could the king raise his income?
5. What is the significance of the Great Charter?
6. What kind of body was established by committee and the advisory
council?
7. Why do you think the knights, freeman farmers and merchants kept together
and held separate meetings??
8. What was the role of the speaker?
9. Which do you think was more powerful, Parliament or the king?