Иностранный язык: Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов 3-4 курса специальности 030401 - "История". Мартемьянова Н.В - 18 стр.


I suppose well soon discuss all these points at our seminars.
There are many historical subjects in our programme. When we are through
with Ancient History, well pass over to the study of the Middle Ages. As to
Russian History, I think, well start learning the pre-revolutionary period (the
period of the 19
and the beginning of the 20
century) next year, but not until we
are through with the feudal period. When I am in my third year, I wish to devote
myself to the special study of Modern and Contemporary History to which I am
greatly attracted.
It was shortly before leaving school that I made up my mind to enter this
faculty and take up History seriously as my future speciality. Whether Ill make a
very good teacher or a research worker remains to be seen, But Im sure that
eventually Ill become quite knowledgeable in the field of History and perhaps
social sciences.
1. Read the text. Look up new words in the vocabulary.
The New Wealthy Classes
Britain had always been famous for its wool, much of it was exported. In order to
improve the manufacture of woollen cloth, William I encouraged Flemish weavers
and other skilled workers from Normandy to settle in Britain. Various other
industries and crafts began to develop in old and new towns. By 1250 most of
Englands towns were established.
Many towns stood on land belonging to feudal lords. To balance the power of
local nobility, the kings gave (sold) charters of freedom to many towns, freeing
the inhabitants from feudal duties to the local lord.
The towns life, courts and economy were controlled by town merchants who
formed a wealthy and influential class.
Two new landed classes developed in the country. They were freeman farmers
who rented landlords land and bit by bit added to their holdings, and gentleman
farmers or landed gentry, that is the knights who devoted themselves to
Kings Need Money
By the late thirteenth century the king could only raise most of his income by
taxation. And taxes could be raised with the agreement of those wealthy enough
to be taxed the merchants in towns and the landed gentry and other wealthy
freemen in the country. These were the two classes of people who produced and
controlled Englands wealth.
There was an increasing necessity in a representative institution whose members
chosen by the shires and towns would link the king with these classes.