# Фрагменты когнитивной психологии. Бабушкин А.П. - 18 стр.

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• ## Иностранный язык

18
experience with modern programming languages should recognize its similarity to
various types of data structure (e.g., records in Pascal) that are used.
Schemas represent categorial knowledge according to a slot structure, where slots
specify values that members of a category have on various attributes. So, we have the
following partial schema representation of a house (building):
Parts: rooms.
Materials: wood, brick, stone.
Function: human dwelling.
Shape: rectilinear, triangular.
Size: 100-10,000 square feet.
In this representation, terms like “materials” or “shape” are the attributes or slots,
and terms like “wood”, “brick”, or “rectilinear” are the values. Each pair of a slot and a
value specifies a typical feature. The fact that houses are typically built of materials like
wood and brick does not exclude such possibilities as cardboard. Thus, the values listed
above are called default values. For instance, the fact that we represent that birds can fly
as part of our schema for birds does not prevent us from seeing ostriches as birds. We
simply overwrite this default value in our representation for ostrich.
The questions for the psychologist is what aspects of the schema notion are
appropriate for understanding how people reason about concepts.
6. Answer the questions to the text:
1. When was the idea of a schema introduced?
2. For what purpose did F.Bartlett make use of schemata?
3. What processes does the original story undergo, according to Frederic Bartlett?
4. Were Bartlett’s ideas ahead of his time?
5. When were schemata reinstated?
6. What do we represent with the help of a schema?
7. What is a schema?
8. Where does the concept of a schema come from?
9. What are default values?
7. Is it true or false?
1. People usually recall all the events with equal details.
2. The original story undergoes processes of rationalization, deletion, elaboration,
and distortion.
3. A category stores predictable information about instances of a category.
4. Schemas represent categorial knowledge according to a slot structure.
5. Houses are never built of cardboards that is why this value is called a default
value.
8. Give a schema of a University (hospital, museum).
9. Outline the main idea of the text.
                                             18
experience with modern programming languages should recognize its similarity to
various types of data structure (e.g., records in Pascal) that are used.
Schemas represent categorial knowledge according to a slot structure, where slots
specify values that members of a category have on various attributes. So, we have the
following partial schema representation of a house (building):
• Parts: rooms.
• Materials: wood, brick, stone.
• Function: human dwelling.
• Shape: rectilinear, triangular.
• Size: 100-10,000 square feet.
In this representation, terms like “materials” or “shape” are the attributes or slots,
and terms like “wood”, “brick”, or “rectilinear” are the values. Each pair of a slot and a
value specifies a typical feature. The fact that houses are typically built of materials like
wood and brick does not exclude such possibilities as cardboard. Thus, the values listed
above are called default values. For instance, the fact that we represent that birds can fly
as part of our schema for birds does not prevent us from seeing ostriches as birds. We
simply overwrite this default value in our representation for ostrich.
The questions for the psychologist is what aspects of the schema notion are
appropriate for understanding how people reason about concepts.

6. Answer the questions to the text:
1. When was the idea of a schema introduced?
2. For what purpose did F.Bartlett make use of schemata?
3. What processes does the original story undergo, according to Frederic Bartlett?
4. Were Bartlett’s ideas ahead of his time?
5. When were schemata reinstated?
6. What do we represent with the help of a schema?
7. What is a schema?
8. Where does the concept of a schema come from?
9. What are default values?

7. Is it true or false?
1. People usually recall all the events with equal details.
2. The original story undergoes processes of rationalization, deletion, elaboration,
and distortion.
3. A category stores predictable information about instances of a category.
4. Schemas represent categorial knowledge according to a slot structure.
5. Houses are never built of cardboards that is why this value is called a default
value.

8. Give a schema of a University (hospital, museum).

9. Outline the main idea of the text.