# Английский язык. Горчакова Е.П - 32 стр.

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32
TEXT
Throughout history people have looked everywhere for the
forces that move them outside themselves, in supernatural
entities; within themselves, in their own needs and desires;
and in the society in which they live. The idea that each of us
is but a pawn of fate. That good fortune and bad luck help to
determine our destinies is hard to shake. Yet wanting to
believe that we can control our lives, most of us subscribe to
the concept of man, the rational master. Those who need
unambiguous explanations, clearly based on simple cause-and-
effect relations, see human beings as machines and point to
man is an island unto himself, some theorists have proposed
that social forces exert a strong influence on human
motivation. This is the theory of social determinism. But social
determinism cuts two ways: we are, individually, influenced by
society, but collectively, we build society and are able to
change it.
The belief that we are often unaware of our true motives
is a very old one, but it was Freud who developed it most fully.
[1]
.
Another influential view of motivation grew out of Darwins
theory of evolution. It argues that the basic motivating force in
humans, as well as in animals, is a set of biological drives, and
that those motives that cannot be traced directly to one of
these drives are acquired motives, or secondary drives. These
secondary drives are seen as being derived from the primary
biological drives.
The biological approach holds that on organism is
motivated to take action only when its equilibrium is
disturbed, when some important ingredient is lacking or is
present in excess, and when the involuntary and automatic
processes of homeostasis cannot restore equilibrium. [2]. But
our bodily needs do not always call forth appropriate conscious
needs. This can be explained in part, but non entirely, by
conditioning.
Though some would explain motivation entirely on the
basis of a physiological striving for equilibrium and the
elimination of tension, there are other kinds of striving, that
can not be explained in this way. The striving to know, to
explore, to create, and even to play is not necessary for
                                32

TEXT

Throughout history people have looked everywhere for the
forces that move them – outside themselves, in supernatural
entities; within themselves, in their own needs and desires;
and in the society in which they live. The idea that each of us
is but a pawn of fate. That good fortune and bad luck help to
determine our destinies is hard to shake. Yet wanting to
believe that we can control our lives, most of us subscribe to
the concept of man, the rational master. Those who need
unambiguous explanations, clearly based on simple cause-and-
effect relations, see human beings as machines and point to
man is an island unto himself, some theorist’s have proposed
that social forces exert a strong influence on human
motivation. This is the theory of social determinism. But social
determinism cuts two ways: we are, individually, influenced by
society, but collectively, we build society and are able to
change it.

The belief that we are often unaware of our true motives
is a very old one, but it was Freud who developed it most fully.
[1]. Another influential view of motivation grew out of Darwin’s
theory of evolution. It argues that the basic motivating force in
humans, as well as in animals, is a set of biological drives, and
that those motives that cannot be traced directly to one of
these drives are acquired motives, or secondary drives. These
secondary drives are seen as being derived from the primary
biological drives.

The biological approach holds that on organism is
motivated to take action only when its equilibrium is
disturbed, when some important ingredient is lacking or is
present in excess, and when the involuntary and automatic
processes of homeostasis cannot restore equilibrium. [2]. But
our bodily needs do not always call forth appropriate conscious
needs. This can be explained in part, but non entirely, by
conditioning.

Though some would explain motivation entirely on the
basis of a physiological striving for equilibrium and the
elimination of tension, there are other kinds of striving, that
can not be explained in this way. The striving to know, to
explore, to create, and even to play is not necessary for